Sequence of the Greek Text of Mt 27:32-56, Mk 15:21-41, Lk 23:26-49, and Jn 19:17-30
Version Date: October 5, 2019.
(Jn 19:17)1 και βασταζων τον σταυρον αυτου εξηλθεν εις τον λεγομενον κρανιου τοπον ος λεγεται εβραιστι γολγοθα
(Lk 23:33)2 και οτε απηλθον επι τον τοπον τον καλουμενον κρανιον ...
(Mt 27:34)3 εδωκαν αυτω πιειν οξος μετα χολης μεμιγμενον και γευσαμενος ουκ ηθελεν πιειν
(Mk 15:23)3 και εδιδουν αυτω πιειν εσμυρνισμενον οινον ο δε ουκ ελαβεν
(Lk 23:33)4 ... εκει εσταυρωσαν αυτον και τους κακουργους ον μεν εκ δεξιων ον δε εξ αριστερων
(Jn 19:18)4 οπου αυτον εσταυρωσαν και μετ αυτου αλλους δυο εντευθεν και εντευθεν μεσον δε τον ιησουν
(Jn 19:19)5 εγραψεν δε και τιτλον ο πιλατος ...
(Jn 19:23)5 οι ουν στρατιωται οτε εσταυρωσαν τον ιησουν ελαβον τα ιματια αυτου και εποιησαν τεσσαρα μερη εκαστω στρατιωτη μερος και τον χιτωνα ην δε ο χιτων αρραφος εκ των ανωθεν υφαντος δι ολου
(Lk 23:35)6 και ειστηκει ο λαος θεωρων εξεμυκτηριζον δε και οι αρχοντες συν αυτοις λεγοντες αλλους εσωσεν σωσατω εαυτον ει ουτος εστιν ο χριστος ο του θεου εκλεκτος
(Mt 27:39)6 οι δε παραπορευομενοι εβλασφημουν αυτον κινουντες τας κεφαλας αυτων
(Mk 15:29)6 και οι παραπορευομενοι εβλασφημουν αυτον κινουντες τας κεφαλας αυτων ...
(Mt 27:40)7 ... καταβηθι απο του σταυρου
(Mk 15:30)7 ... καταβα απο του σταυρου
(Jn 19:20)8 τουτον ουν τον τιτλον πολλοι ανεγνωσαν των ιουδαιων οτι εγγυς ην της πολεως ο τοπος οπου εσταυρωθη ο ιησους και ην γεγραμμενον εβραιστι ελληνιστι ρωμαιστι
(Lk 23:39)9 εις δε των κρεμασθεντων κακουργων εβλασφημει αυτον λεγων ει συ ει ο χριστος σωσον σεαυτον και ημας
(Lk 23:45)10 και εσκοτισθη ο ηλιος και εσχισθη το καταπετασμα του ναου μεσον
(Mt 27:46)11 ... ανεβοησεν ο ιησους φωνη μεγαλη λεγων ηλι ηλι λαμα σαβαχθανι τουτ εστιν θεε μου θεε μου ινατι με εγκατελιπες
(Mk 15:34)11 ... εβοησεν ο ιησους φωνη μεγαλη λεγων ελωι ελωι λαμμα σαβαχθανι ο εστιν μεθερμηνευομενον ο θεος μου ο θεος μου εις τι με εγκατελιπες
(Jn 19:28)12 μετα τουτο ειδως ο ιησους οτι παντα ηδη τετελεσται ινα τελειωθη η γραφη λεγει διψω
(Mt 27:48)13 ... πλησας τε οξους ...
(Mk 15:36)13 ... και γεμισας σπογγον οξους ...
(Jn 19:29)13 ... οι δε πλησαντες σπογγον οξους ...
(Mk 15:36)14 ... λεγων αφετε ιδωμεν ει ερχεται ηλιας καθελειν αυτον
(Mt 27:49)14 οι δε λοιποι ελεγον αφες ιδωμεν ει ερχεται ηλιας σωσων αυτον
(Mt 27:52)15 και τα μνημεια ανεωχθησαν και πολλα σωματα των κεκοιμημενων αγιων ηγερθη
(Mt 27:56)16 ... και η μητηρ των υιων ζεβεδαιου
(Mk 15:40)16 ... και σαλωμη
(1) Jn 19:17 speaks of the time when Jesus departed to Golgotha. At that time he was bearing his cross. Later, they had to stop and put the cross on Simon of Cyrene. The fact that they stopped can be inferred from the word απηλθον "they departed" in Lk 23:33. [Back]
(2) In Lk 23:33, the word απηλθον is understood to refer to the departure from the place where Jesus spoke to the women. [Back]
(3) Mt 27:34 and Mk 15:23 describe two different drinks that the Lord was offered. He refused both. [Back]
(4) Lk 23:23 and Jn 19:18 are not interpreted here as stating that the two evildoers were crucified exactly at the same time as Jesus. These were crucified after the inscription was placed on the cross of Jesus (Mt 27:37-38, Mk 15:26-27). [Back]
(5) Since the beginning of Jn 19:23 includes οτε εσταυρωσαν τον ιησουν, it is not necessary to assume that Jn 19:19 happened before the soldiers divided the clothing of Jesus. Rather, as could be seen from the other accounts, the inscription was placed on the cross later. Nonetheless, it is possible that the inscription was written sometime between Lk 23:34 and Jn 19:23. [Back]
(6) In view of Mt 27:37, it can be seen that Mt 27:39-43 and Mk 15:29-32 took place after the inscription was placed on the cross. Note that Lk 23:35-37 does not seem to describe the same occasion as Mt 27:39-43 and Mk 15:29-32, as it does not match perfectly these passages. Lk 23:35-37 is followed by Lk 23:38, which mentions the inscription on the cross, and by Lk 23:39, which mentions that one of the thieves mocked Jesus. Considering that Lk 23:35-37 and Lk 23:39 were not grouped together, but separated by Lk 23:38, the simplest explanation of this fact would be that Lk 23:35-37 happened before Lk 23:38, while Lk 23:39 after Lk 23:38. [Back]
(7) In Mt 27:40 and Mk 15:30, the forms καταβηθι and καταβα are understood to be equivalent. [Back]
(8) The word ουν "therefore, then" in Jn 19:21 was understood to indicate that the chief priests objected after they realized that many people were reading the inscription. Thus, it appears that they did not object immediately after the inscription was placed on the cross. [Back]
(9) In view of the time indicated by Lk 23:44, it could be concluded Lk 23:39 took place a few hours after Mt 27:44 and Mk 15:32. [Back]
(10) Lk 23:45 states that the curtain was torn in the middle. Later, the curtain was torn completely from top to bottom (Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38). Thus, Lk 23:45 is interpreted here as referring to a partial tear of the curtain happening sometime between the sixth and the ninth hour. [Back]
(11) Considering the received text, the transliteration differences between Mt 27:46 and Mk 15:34 provide information on the pronunciation of the words. Comparing ηλι and ελωι, it can be inferred that the first vowel sound resembled both η and ε, while the second vowel sound could be described by both ωι and ι. Comparing λαμα with λαμμα, it could be concluded that a long μ sound was heard, not two distinct μ sounds. [Back]
(12) An alternative interpretation would be that Jn 19:28 happened right before Mt 27:46 and Mk 15:43. However, since Jn 19:28 states that Jesus knew that all things had been accomplished, it would seem more likely that Mt 27:46 and Mk 15:43 had already happened by the time of Jn 19:28. [Back]
(13) The plural number in Jn 19:29 indicates that others were in agreement with the man who gave Jesus vinegar to drink. [Back]
(14) The words αφες and αφετε in Mt 27:49 and Mk 15:36 indicate requests for permission. Examples in which the verb αφιημι is used in requests for permission include Jn 18:8, Mt 7:4, and Lk 13:8. Considering Mk 15:36, given the plural number of αφετε, the words of the man were probably directed to the soldiers guarding Jesus. In Mt 27:49, given the singular number of αφες, the words were probably directed to the centurion. Thus, Mk 15:36 appears to precede in time Mt 27:49. First, the man rushed to give Jesus a drink, and while he was giving Jesus the drink, he asked the soldiers for permission (Mk 15:36). The soldiers probably sought approval from the centurion. Then, those standing by intervened and asked the centurion to allow them to give Jesus the drink (Mt 27:49). [Back]
(15) In view of Mt 27:53, it appears that the dead were raised after the resurrection of the Lord. [Back]
(16) Comparing Mt 27:56 and Mk 15:40, σαλωμη "Salome" and η μητηρ των υιων ζεβεδαιου "the mother of the sons of Zebedee" do not have to be the same person, since Mk 15:40 indicates that not all women who were present are named. [Back]