Sequence of the Greek Text of Mt 27:1-31, Mk 15:1-20, Lk 22:66-23:25, and Jn 18:28-19:16
Version Date: August 19, 2019.
(Mk 15:1)1 και ευθεως επι το πρωι συμβουλιον ποιησαντες οι αρχιερεις μετα των πρεσβυτερων και γραμματεων και ολον το συνεδριον ...
(Mt 27:1)2 πρωιας δε γενομενης συμβουλιον ελαβον παντες οι αρχιερεις και οι πρεσβυτεροι του λαου κατα του ιησου ωστε θανατωσαι αυτον
(Mt 27:3)3 τοτε ιδων ιουδας ο παραδιδους αυτον οτι κατεκριθη μεταμεληθεις απεστρεψεν τα τριακοντα αργυρια τοις αρχιερευσιν και τοις πρεσβυτεροις
(Mt 27:5)4 και ριψας τα αργυρια εν τω ναω ανεχωρησεν και απελθων απηγξατο
(Mt 27:6)5 οι δε αρχιερεις λαβοντες τα αργυρια ειπον ουκ εξεστιν βαλειν αυτα εις τον κορβαναν επει τιμη αιματος εστιν
(Ac 1:18)6 ουτος μεν ουν εκτησατο χωριον εκ του μισθου της αδικιας ...
(Ac 1:18)7 ... και πρηνης γενομενος ελακησεν μεσος και εξεχυθη παντα τα σπλαγχνα αυτου
(Mt 27:8)8 διο εκληθη ο αγρος εκεινος ...
(Ac 1:19)8 ... ωστε κληθηναι το χωριον εκεινο ...
(Jn 18:29)9 εξηλθεν ουν ο πιλατος προς αυτους και ειπεν τινα κατηγοριαν φερετε κατα του ανθρωπου τουτου
(Mk 15:4)10 ο δε πιλατος παλιν επηρωτησεν αυτον λεγων ...
(Jn 18:33)11 εισηλθεν ουν εις το πραιτωριον παλιν ο πιλατος και εφωνησεν τον ιησουν και ειπεν αυτω συ ει ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων
(Jn 18:36) απεκριθη ο ιησους η βασιλεια η εμη ουκ εστιν εκ του κοσμου τουτου ει εκ του κοσμου τουτου ην η βασιλεια η εμη οι υπηρεται αν οι εμοι ηγωνιζοντο ινα μη παραδοθω τοις ιουδαιοις νυν δε η βασιλεια η εμη ουκ εστιν εντευθεν
(Jn 18:37) ειπεν ουν αυτω ο πιλατος ουκουν βασιλευς ει συ απεκριθη ο ιησους συ λεγεις οτι βασιλευς ειμι εγω εγω εις τουτο γεγεννημαι και εις τουτο εληλυθα εις τον κοσμον ινα μαρτυρησω τη αληθεια πας ο ων εκ της αληθειας ακουει μου της φωνης
(Lk 23:14)12 ειπεν προς αυτους προσηνεγκατε μοι τον ανθρωπον τουτον ως αποστρεφοντα τον λαον και ιδου εγω ενωπιον υμων ανακρινας ουδεν ευρον εν τω ανθρωπω τουτω αιτιον ων κατηγορειτε κατ αυτου
(Mk 15:9)12 ... θελετε απολυσω υμιν τον βασιλεα των ιουδαιων
(Jn 18:39)12 ... βουλεσθε ουν υμιν απολυσω τον βασιλεα των ιουδαιων
(Jn 18:40)13 εκραυγασαν ουν παλιν παντες λεγοντες μη τουτον αλλα τον βαραββαν ην δε ο βαραββας ληστης
(Mt 27:17)12 συνηγμενων ουν αυτων ειπεν αυτοις ο πιλατος τινα θελετε απολυσω υμιν βαραββαν η ιησουν τον λεγομενον χριστον
(Mt 27:22)14 λεγει αυτοις ο πιλατος τι ουν ποιησω ιησουν τον λεγομενον χριστον λεγουσιν αυτω παντες σταυρωθητω
(Mt 27:23)15 ο δε ηγεμων εφη τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν οι δε περισσως εκραζον λεγοντες σταυρωθητω
(Jn 19:1)16 τοτε ουν ελαβεν ο πιλατος τον ιησουν και εμαστιγωσεν
(Lk 23:20)17 παλιν ουν ο πιλατος προσεφωνησεν θελων απολυσαι τον ιησουν
(Mk 15:12)18 ο δε πιλατος αποκριθεις παλιν ειπεν αυτοις τι ουν θελετε ποιησω ον λεγετε βασιλεα των ιουδαιων
(Mk 15:14)19 ο δε πιλατος ελεγεν αυτοις τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν ...
(Lk 23:22)20 ο δε τριτον ειπεν προς αυτους τι γαρ κακον εποιησεν ...
(Mt 27:26)21 ... τον δε ιησουν φραγελλωσας παρεδωκεν ...
(Mk 15:15)21 ... και παρεδωκεν τον ιησουν φραγελλωσας ...
(Mt 27:29)22 και πλεξαντες στεφανον εξ ακανθων επεθηκαν επι την κεφαλην αυτου ...
(Mk 15:17)22 ... και περιτιθεασιν αυτω πλεξαντες ακανθινον στεφανον
(1) The phrase επι το προι in Mk 15:1 was understood here as referring to the period of time that occurred shortly before dawn. At that time, they took counsel together. A little while later, they gathered again for the formal trial of Jesus (Lk 22:66). [Back]
(2) Understanding Mt 27:1 to be after the trial of Lk 22:66-71, the role of the discussion mentioned in this verse must have been to determine what to tell Pilate so that he might execute Jesus. Mt 27:1 is not the same occasion as Mk 15:1, which took place before dawn. Mk 15:1 refers to a discussion preceding the formal trial of Jesus. [Back]
(3) Lk 23:1 indicates that the entire Sanhedrin went to Pilate when Jesus was taken there. Thus, Mt 27:3 must have happened while the leaders were waiting for Pilate. [Back]
(4) It is quite likely that the events of Mt 27:5 did not take place immediately after Mt 27:3-4. Since Judas was able to throw the money into the sanctuary (note the word ναος), the implication would be that he did it after the presence of the Lord left the temple (Lk 13:35, Mt 23:38). The torn curtain and the money thrown inside by Judas were two indications that the presence of the Lord was no longer there. It is likely that Judas took advantage of the confusion caused by the supernatural darkness (Mt 27:45) and the earthquake that split the rocks (Mt 27:51) in order to do this. Doubtless, the temple guards pursued him, but he killed himself. [Back]
(5) Mt 27:6 took place after Judas threw the money into the sanctuary, likely on the same day, sometime after Jesus was crucified. The decision of the chief priests to buy a field for a burial place of foreigners (Mt 27:7) suggests that they were aware of Judas' death. By purchasing this field, they could ensure that Judas was buried, so that no dead body would be exposed the next day (see Jn 19:31). As for "foreigners" in Mt 27:7, in the context of the regulations of the law concerning the temple, something or someone was foreign if in an unlawful circumstance. For example, אש זרה "strange fire" in Lev 10:1 refers to an unauthorized offering, and "stranger" in וזר לא יאכל "and a stranger must not eat it" in Ex 29:33 is not about Gentiles, but about any outsider, regardless whether a Jew or a Gentile. Judas himself became a "foreigner" when he threw the money into the sanctuary, for to do this he had to enter a place where he was not supposed to be in. Thus, when the chief priests purchased a burial place for foreigners, they bought a burial place for those executed for breaking the temple regulations. [Back]
(6) Judas acquired the field by throwing the money into the sanctuary, for this is what the priests used the money for. [Back]
(7) Considering Ac 1:18, one possibility is that Judas fell when he hanged himself. However, another possibility is that his body fell when he was taken down for burial. Considering the order in which the facts are mentioned in Ac 1:18, we see that first the field was acquired, and then Judas fell headlong. So Judas fell after the priests acquired the field, which implies that he fell after he died, probably when he was taken down to be buried. [Back]
(8) In view of Mt 27:8 and Ac 1:19, the people associated blood with the potter's field based on three reasons. Two reasons appear in Mt 27:8, which mentions that the field was purchased with blood money and that it was to be used as a burial place for "foreigners", that is, for anyone executed for breaking the temple regulations; see the note (5) above. Moreover, Ac 1:19 indicates that the people heard both about the death of Judas and about the fact that the money for betraying Jesus was used to purchase the field. Thus, Ac 1:19 mentions two factors that helped associate blood with the potter's field: the blood money used to purchase the field and the blood of Judas that was spilt when he fell. If the place where Judas fell was in that field, the association of blood with that field would have been even stronger. [Back]
(9) Jn 18:29 followed a little while after Mt 27:3-4. [Back]
(10) The word παλιν in Mk 15:4 refers to the fact that Pilate had questioned Jesus previously (Mk 15:2), before the second round of accusations. [Back]
(11) The word παλιν "again" in Jn 18:33 indicates that this verse did not happen immediately after Jn 18:32. While the account in John does not mention when Pilate had entered previously the Praetorium, from the account in Luke it can be inferred that the governor returned to the Praetorium when Jesus was taken to Herod. Later, when the leaders returned and Jesus was brought back, Pilate came out to them again. So in Jn 18:33 he entered one more time the Praetorium to question Jesus. Note that when Pilate had questioned Jesus previously (Mt 27:11-14, Mk 15:2-5, Lk 23:2-3), he did it before the Jewish leaders (note ενωπιον υμων "before you" in Lk 23:14), and therefore outside of the Praetorium (Jn 18:28). [Back]
(12) Mt 27:17-21, Mk 15:9-11, Lk 23:14-18, and Jn 18:38-40 are similar. However, not all of them appear to have taken place at the same time. Lk 23:13 mentions that Pilate called the chief priests, the leaders, and the people. Moreover, Mt 27:17 states "after they had gathered ... ". The interpretation here is that in Lk 23:14-18 Pilate addressed mainly the chief priests and the leaders, while the people gathered. After some people gathered, they began to ask him to release them one prisoner (Mk 15:8), and Pilate offered to release Jesus (Mk 15:9-11, Jn 18:38-40). When all the people were gathered, Pilate asked whether he should release Jesus or Barabbas (Mt 27:17-21). [Back]
(13) The word παλιν in Jn 18:40 implies that the crowd had spoken earlier. This earlier occasion is not recorded in Jn 18. In this chronology, it would correspond to Mk 15:8. [Back]
(14) See also the note on Mt 24:22 and Mk 13:20 concerning the form σταυρωθητω. [Back]
(15) Note that the form εφη of Mt 27:23 could be parsed either with the aorist tense or the imperfect tense. The aorist tense was assumed here. [Back]
(16) Considering Jn 19:1, when Pilate had Jesus scourged, he acted according to what he had stated earlier in Lk 23:16. [Back]
(17) The word παλιν in Lk 23:20 indicates that Lk 23:20 and Lk 23:19 do not belong to the same occasion. [Back]
(18) The word παλιν of Mk 15:12 is understood to indicate that this verse and Mk 15:9 do not belong to the same occasion. Thus, Mk 15:12 did not happen immediately after Mk 15:11. In this chronology, the word αποκριθεις "having answered" of Mk 15:12 refers to what Pilate said in Jn 19:4. [Back]
(19) Since the tense of ελεγεν in Mk 15:14 is the imperfect, this was taken as an indication that Mk 15:14 did not happen immediately after Mk 15:13. In this chronology, Mk 15:14 is in the context of Jn 19:12. It should not be surprising that Pilate continued to argue that Jesus did not do anything worthy of death, since the claim that the Jewish law required that he should die (Jn 19:7) was not a good enough reason for Pilate to execute him. That this was not a good reason could be seen by examining the subsequent verses in the account of John, where we see that Pilate became inclined to crucify Jesus only after they said that one who releases a person claiming to be a king is not a friend of Caesar (Jn 19:12-13). [Back]
(20) The word τριτον in Lk 23:22 was understood to denote a third occasion in which Pilate addressed the people. Thus, Lk 23:22 fits in the context of Jn 19:12-15. [Back]
(21) The word τοτε in Jn 19:16 indicates that Jesus was delivered to be crucified soon after Jn 19:15. This implies that the scourging of Jesus mentioned in Mt 27:26 and Mk 15:15 did not take much time. The text does not imply that Jesus was prepared for scourging only after Barabas was released. The preparation for scourging could have began immediately after Pilate decided to crucify him, as early as Mt 27:24. To avoid a riot (Mt 27:24), Pilate was probably acting quickly. [Back]
(22) The crown of thorns in Mt 27:29 and Mk 15:17 may or may not be the same as the one in Jn 19:2. [Back]