Sequence of the Greek Text of Mt 26:1-29, Mk 14:1-25, Lk 22:1-23, and 1Co 11:23-25
Version Date: July 7, 2019.
(Mt 26:2)1 οιδατε οτι μετα δυο ημερας το πασχα γινεται και ο υιος του ανθρωπου παραδιδοται εις το σταυρωθηναι
(Mt 26:5)2 ελεγον δε μη εν τη εορτη ινα μη θορυβος γενηται εν τω λαω
(Lk 22:1)1 ηγγιζεν δε η εορτη των αζυμων η λεγομενη πασχα
(Mk 14:1)1 ην δε το πασχα και τα αζυμα μετα δυο ημερας ...
(Mk 14:2)2 ελεγον δε μη εν τη εορτη μηποτε θορυβος εσται του λαου
(Mt 26:10)3 ... τι κοπους παρεχετε τη γυναικι εργον γαρ καλον ειργασατο εις εμε
(Mk 14:6)3 ... τι αυτη κοπους παρεχετε καλον εργον ειργασατο εις εμε
(Mt 26:13)4 αμην λεγω υμιν οπου εαν κηρυχθη το ευαγγελιον τουτο εν ολω τω κοσμω λαληθησεται και ο εποιησεν αυτη εις μνημοσυνον αυτης
(Mk 14:9)4 αμην λεγω υμιν οπου αν κηρυχθη το ευαγγελιον τουτο εις ολον τον κοσμον και ο εποιησεν αυτη λαληθησεται εις μνημοσυνον αυτης
(Lk 22:3)5 εισηλθεν δε ο σατανας εις ιουδαν τον επικαλουμενον ισκαριωτην οντα εκ του αριθμου των δωδεκα
(Mt 26:18)6 ... ειπατε αυτω ...
(Mk 14:14)6 ... ειπατε τω οικοδεσποτη ...
(Lk 22:11)6 ... ερειτε τω οικοδεσποτη ...
(Mt 26:23)7 ... ο εμβαψας μετ εμου εν τω τρυβλιω ...
(Mk 14:20)7 ... ο εμβαπτομενος μετ εμου εις το τρυβλιον
(Mt 26:29)8 λεγω δε υμιν οτι ου μη πιω απ αρτι εκ τουτου του γεννηματος της αμπελου εως της ημερας εκεινης οταν αυτο πινω μεθ υμων καινον εν τη βασιλεια του πατρος μου
(Mk 14:25)8 αμην λεγω υμιν οτι ουκετι ου μη πιω εκ του γεννηματος της αμπελου εως της ημερας εκεινης οταν αυτο πινω καινον εν τη βασιλεια του θεου
(Lk 22:16)9 λεγω γαρ υμιν οτι ουκετι ου μη φαγω εξ αυτου εως οτου πληρωθη εν τη βασιλεια του θεου
(Lk 22:17)10 και δεξαμενος ποτηριον ευχαριστησας ειπεν λαβετε τουτο και διαμερισατε εαυτοις
(Lk 22:19)11 και λαβων αρτον ...
(1Co 11:23)11 ... ελαβεν αρτον
(Lk 22:20)12 ωσαυτως και το ποτηριον μετα το δειπνησαι λεγων τουτο το ποτηριον η καινη διαθηκη ...
(1Co 11:25)12 ωσαυτως και το ποτηριον μετα το δειπνησαι λεγων τουτο το ποτηριον η καινη διαθηκη ...
(Lk 22:22)13 και ο μεν υιος του ανθρωπου πορευεται κατα το ωρισμενον πλην ουαι τω ανθρωπω εκεινω δι ου παραδιδοται
(1) Considering Mt 26:2, Mk 14:1, and Lk 22:1, the following remarks could be made. The statement μετα δυο ημερας το πασχα γινεται (Mt 26:2), as it involves the verb γινομαι instead of ειμι, is understood to indicate that at the end of two days the Passover began. In other words, the day after Mt 26:2 was the day preceding the Passover. Moreover, ην δε το πασχα και τα αζυμα μετα δυο ημερας (Mk 14:1) is understood to state that the day after Mk 14:1 was the Passover. As for ηγγιζεν δε η εορτη των αζυμων η λεγομενη πασχα (Lk 22:1), since all the days of the week preceding the Feast of Unleavened Bread were near the feast and Lk 22:1 did not take place on the Passover day, Lk 22:1 is understood here to refer to the nearest day that was not the Passover day, that is, the day preceding the Passover. Thus, Mk 14:1 and Lk 22:1 took place on the same day, while Mt 26:2 was one day earlier. [Back]
(2) The similarity of Mt 26:5 and Mk 14:2 does not imply that the two verses took place on the same day, but rather points to the fact that the leaders did not change their plans from the time of Mt 26:5 to the time of Mk 14:2. [Back]
(3) The phrase τη γυναικι in Mt 26:10 corresponds to αυτη in Mk 14:6. A possible explanation of this difference between the two verses is that a strict translation of the words of the Lord would have used αυτη in Mt 26:10, just as in Mk 14:6. However, to indicate plainly that the Lord was referring to the woman and not to η απολεια αυτη of Mt 26:8, τη γυναικι was used instead of αυτη. There was no need to do the same in Mk 14:6 since αυτη in Mk 14:5 is closer to Mk 14:6 than η απολεια αυτη in Mk 14:4, and αυτη in Mk 14:5 is clearly referring to the woman. [Back]
(4) Though the differences between Mt 26:13 and Mk 14:9 are small, they are significant enough to imply that the two verses could represent two different statements of the Lord. It was assumed here that Mt 26:13 was spoken before Mk 14:9. However, this order is arbitrary; there seems to be no issue if the opposite order is assumed instead. As for differences, note that in Mt 26:13 we have εν ολω τω κοσμω "in all the world", while in Mk 14:9 εις ολον τον κοσμον "for all the world". In the context, the first would refer to any place where the gospel is preached, while the other to any place where the gospel is preached for all to hear. Thus, Mt 26:13 would fit not only places where the gospel may be preached freely, but also places where the preaching of the gospel is forbidden. However, Mk 14:9 would only fit places in which there is freedom to preach the gospel. While in Mk 14:9 the particle αν is used, indicating no exceptions, in Mt 26:13 the particle εαν is used, indicating possible exceptions. Indeed, persecuted believers might not have the entire Bible, and thus they might not hear about what Mary did. [Back]
(5) A comparison of Lk 22:3 and Jn 13:27 would justify placing Lk 22:3 after Mt 26:13 and Mk 14:9. In Jn 13:27, before Judas departed to deliver Jesus to his enemies, Satan entered Judas. So also in Lk 22:3, Satan must have entered Judas to empower him to go and betray Jesus. Thus, it would seem very likely that Lk 22:4 followed shortly after Lk 22:3, and Lk 22:3 followed after Mt 26:13 and Mk 14:9. [Back]
(6) The word αυτω in Mt 26:18 appears to be supplied in translation in the place of τω οικοδεσποτη in Mk 14:14 and Lk 22:11. This may be because the account in Matthew introduces the master of the house with the word δεινα. While αυτω would fit as a reference to δεινα, the word οικοδεσποτη would not fit. [Back]
(7) Comparing εμβαψας in Mt 26:23 with εμβαπτομενος in Mk 14:20, it would appear that the Lord used a participle in the original language. Since participles do not have tense in Hebrew and Aramaic, both translations are possible. The aorist tense used in Mt 26:23 emphasizes something that had already taken place, that Judas had already dipped his hand into the dish. The present tense of Mk 14:20 emphasizes the continuous aspect, that Judas kept dipping his hand into the dish. Accounting for the text of Mk 14:20, ο εμβαψας and ο εμβαπτομενος would correspond to הטבל in Hebrew and די טמש in Aramaic. (About dipping the hand into the dish, a related verse is Ru 2:14, in which the verb טמש "to immerse" has been used in Aramaic. Less related is 1Sa 14:27, in which טבל "to dip" has been used in Aramaic.) Related examples in the Bible involving the use of the participle in Aramaic are Ezr 7:25, Dan 2:29, Dan 4:37 (4:34). [Back]
(8) The word ουκετι in Mk 14:25 is understood as indicating that the Lord drank from the fruit of the vine before he spoke Mk 14:25, and that he no longer drank from it afterwards. The phrase ουκετι ου μη πιω in Mk 14:25 is understood to be equivalent to ου μη πιω απ αρτι in Mt 26:29. [Back]
(9) The word ουκετι of Lk 22:16 is interpreted as indicating that by the time of Lk 22:16 Jesus had been eating, but he no longer ate afterwards. So Jesus was done eating by the time of Lk 22:16. The others were not yet done eating (Lk 22:19). It was assumed here that Lk 22:16 happened after Mk 14:25, in which the Lord also used the word ουκετι to indicate that he would no longer drink from the fruit of the vine. Note that μετα το δειπνησαι in Lk 22:20 and 1Co 11:25 is understood as "after they had eaten, after supper", not "after he had eaten", for in the interpretation presented here the Lord was already done eating by Lk 22:16. [Back]
(10) The absence of the word ουκετι in Lk 22:18 is taken as an indication that Lk 22:17-18 happened after Mt 26:27-29 and Mk 14:23-25. The interpretation here is that since Jesus did not drink before Lk 22:17, though he drank before Mt 26:29 and Mk 14:23-25, the word ουκετι is not used in Lk 22:18. It should be noted also that 1Co 11:23 states explicitly that it took place during the night. Since the Lord and the disciples reclined at the table when it was late but not yet night (see the phrase οψιας γενομενης in Mt 26:20 and Mk 14:17), it is clear that Lk 22:19 and 1Co 11:23 did not take place at the beginning of the supper. [Back]
(11) As mentioned in the note (10), Lk 22:17-18 took place after Mt 26:29 and Mk 14:25. It follows that Lk 22:19 and 1Co 11:23 do not describe the same occasion as Mt 26:26 and Mk 14:22. [Back]
(12) μετα το δειπνησαι in Lk 22:20 and 1Co 11:25 is understood as "after they had eaten, after supper", not "after he had eaten", for in the interpretation presented here the Lord was already done eating by Lk 22:16. See the note (9). [Back]
(13) Comparing Lk 22:22 with Mt 26:24 and Mk 14:21, the similarity of these verses indicates that the Lord added emphasis to his words by speaking them more than once. [Back]