Sequence of the Greek Text of Mt 24:1-2, Mk 12:35-13:2, and Lk 20:41-21:6
Version Date: May 26, 2019.
(Lk 20:41)1 ... προς αυτους ...
(Mk 12:38))2 ... αυτοις ...
(Lk 20:45)2 ... τοις μαθηταις αυτου
(Mk 12:44)3 ... αυτη δε εκ της υστερησεως αυτης παντα οσα ειχεν εβαλεν ολον τον βιον αυτης
(Lk 21:4)3 ... αυτη δε εκ του υστερηματος αυτης απαντα τον βιον ον ειχεν εβαλεν
(1) In the context of Lk 20:41, προς αυτους would fit the scribes. While Jesus was apparently not speaking directly to the scribes, he was speaking about them when he said πως λεγουσιν τον χριστον υιον δαβιδ ειναι. About this use of προς αυτους, note προς αυτους την παραβολην ταυτην ειπεν in Lk 20:19 and προς αυτους την παραβολην ειπεν in Mk 12:12. Note also Lk 12:41. [Back]
(2) In Lk 20:45 the Lord did not address his disciples privately, but in the hearing of the people. So he intended the message also for the people. Thus, ελεγεν αυτοις in Mk 12:38 does not imply that Mk 12:38 and Lk 20:45 refer to a different occasions. [Back]
(3) Considering Mk 12:44 and Lk 21:4, these two verses do not express in exactly the same way the fact that the widow gave all that she had. The differences could be explained by examining first the meaning of the word βιος. Note that the word βιος referred to something that could be gathered together (Lk 15:12-13) and spent (Lk 15:14); it is used in the LXX translation of נכסין in Ezr 7:26, which appears again in נכסי מלכא in Ezr 6:8, in reference to funds from which the temple work was to be supported. Thus, βιος is associated with money and possibly things that could be easily converted to money. Then, βιος in Mk 12:44 and Lk 21:4 indicates that the widow gave all the money that she could save, not that she did not have anything else. παντα οσα ειχεν "all that she had" did not include, for example, her house and personal items. Comparing now παντα οσα ειχεν εβαλεν ολον τον βιον αυτης in Mk 12:44 and απαντα τον βιον ον ειχεν εβαλεν in Lk 21:4, it may be that the differences are due to additional words added in translation that clarified to the Greek-speaking hearer the meaning of the text. Under this hypothesis, the Lord might have spoken only παντα οσα ειχεν εβαλεν (corresponding to כל אשר לה נתנה in Hebrew or יהבת ית כל דלה in Aramaic). Then, ολον τον βιον αυτης was added in apposition to παντα οσα ειχεν in order to indicate more clearly what the Lord was referring to. This would explain also τον βιον in Lk 21:14. Moreover, the reason Mk 12:44 has παντα οσα ειχεν εβαλεν ολον τον βιον αυτης instead of just εβαλεν ολον τον βιον αυτης could be to emphasize that the widow had nothing else to give. An example in which words are added in translation is Mk 12:30, in which בכל לבבך of De 6:5 is rendered εξ ολης της καρδιας σου και ... εξ ολης της διανοιας σου. Another example is εις παγιδα και εις θηραν in Ro 11:9, translating לפח in Ps 69:22 (69:23). [Back]