Notes on Jude

Version Date: July 15, 2021

This article presents verse-by-verse comments to the Book of Jude. It emphasizes that the epistle appeals to believers to help the lost among them come to the faith. The epistle focuses on certain lost people that appear to be part of the church though resisting the Lord and not walking towards him. The seriousness of their condition is described with words meant to wake up the hearers and move them to action. When believers consider the true condition of the lost, they should be moved to pray and to seek the Lord's mercy that leads to eternal life, so as to minister effectively and help them be saved. The Lord is willing and able to save the lost and make them stand before his glorious presence with exceeding joy. Now two Old Testament references of this epistle have been assumed by some authors to be to apocryphal literature. On the contrary, these references are seen here to be to the Hebrew text of De 33:2-3 and Zec 3:1-2. The information in Jude about De 33:2-3 is seen as something that had been revealed long before the writing of the apocryphal Book of Enoch, so that the Book of Enoch is not its source but a literary work using it. As for the time of the Book of Jude, since it quotes from 2Pt 3:3, it must have been written sometime after 2 Peter.

Jude 1:1 ιουδας ιησου χριστου δουλος αδελφος δε ιακωβου τοις εν θεω πατρι ηγιασμενοις και ιησου χριστω τετηρημενοις κλητοις

"Jude, a slave of Jesus Christ and brother of James. To the called that have been set apart in God the Father and kept in Jesus Christ." The name ιουδας appears several times in the New Testament. Depending on context, it has been translated either as "Judah", "Judas", or "Jude", just as ιακωβος has been translated sometimes "Jacob" and other times "James". Since James in Jude 1:1 did not need any introduction, he must be James the brother of the Lord (Ga 1:19). It follows that Jude could be identified with Judas of Mt 13:55 and Mk 6:3; see also Ac 1:14. The fact that Jude called himself a slave and not a brother of the Lord should not be surprising (cf. Ge 27:29). The form ηγιασμενοις "having been set apart" comes from the verb αγιαζω "to make holy, dedicate, consecrate". The translation above emphasizes that this verb does not imply spiritual maturity; the epistle is addressed to all believers, regardless of their spiritual stature.

Jude 1:2 ελεος υμιν και ειρηνη και αγαπη πληθυνθειη

"Mercy be to you and peace, and may love be multiplied." Doubtless, it is highly desirable that all of mercy, peace, and love should be multiplied. However, the epistle emphasizes love, for it moves believers to action and helps them reach out to the lost. Considering the order of the words, note that the verse has ελεος υμιν ... και αγαπη πληθυνθειη "mercy to you ... and love may be multiplied" instead of ελεος ... και αγαπη πληθυνθειη υμιν "mercy ... and love may be multiplied to you." The order of the words supports the view that only αγαπη "love" is the subject of the verb. The singular number of the verb is consistent with this view. An alternative interpretation is that the verse states, "May mercy, peace, and love be multiplied to you." If the alternative interpretation were right, then the ending of the verse would have surprised one hearing Jude 1:2 in the original language, for after hearing the first part of the verse, the hearer would have thought that mercy and peace were wished to him, but after hearing the last part of the verse, the hearer would have had to change his mind and understand that the actual wish was that mercy, peace, and love would be multiplied to him.

Jude 1:3 αγαπητοι πασαν σπουδην ποιουμενος γραφειν υμιν περι της κοινης σωτηριας αναγκην εσχον γραψαι υμιν παρακαλων επαγωνιζεσθαι τη απαξ παραδοθειση τοις αγιοις πιστει

"Beloved, when giving all diligence to write to you concerning our common salvation, I had a necessity to write to you exhorting you to contend for the faith given to the saints once and for all." As understood here, the appeal to contend for the faith is not outside of the topic of our common salvation, but a salvation subtopic, since salvation is impossible apart from this faith. The epistle speaks about unsaved persons associated with the church, warns about the end of those who do not believe, and appeals to believers to help them come to the faith. So the exhortation to contend for the faith is an appeal to help others have this faith.

Jude 1:4 παρεισεδυσαν γαρ τινες ανθρωποι οι παλαι προγεγραμμενοι εις τουτο το κριμα ασεβεις την του θεου ημων χαριν μετατιθεντες εις ασελγειαν και τον μονον δεσποτην θεον και κυριον ημων ιησουν χριστον αρνουμενοι

"For certain people have crept in, who have been of old written for this judgment, irreverent people turning the grace of God into a license for loose morals and denying our Lord Jesus Christ, who is God and only Master." In this verse, the epistle begins speaking about certain persons that have been associated with the church, though not knowing the Lord. The epistle lists a number of traits that describe the condition of these men. The manner in which these traits are given in the original language does not imply that each trait applies to every single person, but that each trait is well represented among these men. For example, while the statement that "they have been written of old" applies to each of them, the statement about loose morals might not apply to all.

Jude 1:4 speaks of men that have crept in; this implies that in a certain sense they were unnoticed when joining the church fellowship, that is, they appeared to have faith though not knowing the Lord. The form ασεβεις "irreverent people" is the plural of the word ασεβης, which is commonly translated "ungodly", such as in "Christ ... died for the ungodly" (Ro 5:6) and "him who justifies the ungodly" (Ro 4:5). As could be seen in the New Testament, this word denotes the unsaved. The fact that in the Bible "irreverent" is the same thing as "unsaved" could be explained as follows. First, one who is irreverent towards the God of the Bible does not know him. Second, an unsaved person has not submitted himself to the lordship of Christ, and in this sense is irreverent.

The word ασελγειαν was translated here "loose morals". The morals are loose from the perspective of the Bible; the men practicing them may feel that they are right. Considering the fact that these men deny the Lord, it could be noted that there is more than one way in which the Lord can be denied. The Lord is denied when people claim that he is not something that he is (1Jn 2:22), when they falsely deny, like Peter, any association with him (Lk 22:57), or when denying him by their deeds, though professing to know him (Tit 1:16). People denying the Lord may be able to repent. For example, after denying Christ, Peter repented and was restored. Now the word κριμα "judgment" of Jude 1:4 is usually translated "condemnation". However, in the context of Jude 1:4, this word speaks of a decision of the Lord to let certain unbelievers become part of the church fellowship. Clearly, if the church helps them be saved, this decision is not a condemnation but an act of mercy.

Jude 1:5 υπομνησαι δε υμας βουλομαι ειδοτας υμας απαξ τουτο οτι ο κυριος λαον εκ γης αιγυπτου σωσας το δευτερον τους μη πιστευσαντας απωλεσεν

"But I desire to remind you who have known once for all this, that after the Lord has saved a people from the land of Egypt, next he destroyed those who have not believed." Since το δευτερον "the second" is used instead of υστερον "afterwards", it can be concluded that the verse speaks of something that the Lord did immediately after he did the thirst thing. When saving Israel from Egypt, the Lord also destroyed their pursuers, which is the second thing that he did. Now Jude 1:5 reminds the hearer that those without faith will perish. There is no need to remind believers about this truth when considering lost persons who are difficult to love. The passage, however, is about all lost persons, including those that seem too nice to be lost.

Jude 1:6-7 αγγελους τε τους μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην αλλα απολιποντας το ιδιον οικητηριον εις κρισιν μεγαλης ημερας δεσμοις αιδιοις υπο ζοφον τετηρηκεν ως σοδομα και γομορρα και αι περι αυτας πολεις τον ομοιον τουτοις τροπον εκπορνευσασαι και απελθουσαι οπισω σαρκος ετερας προκεινται δειγμα πυρος αιωνιου δικην υπεχουσαι

"Angels who did not keep their own position of authority but left their dwelling place, he has kept in darkness, bound with eternal chains for the judgment of the great day, like Sodom and Gomorrah and their surrounding cities, who acting after the manner of these angels, having given themselves to gross immorality and having gone after strange flesh, are set forth as a warning, having received the punishment of eternal fire." Based on the phrase "like Sodom and Gomorrah", it could be concluded that the great day is for the judgment of both angels and men. So this day of judgment is the day of the final judgment of men mentioned in Rev 20:11-13. The statement that believers will judge angels (1Co 6:3) could also be associated with this day of judgment. Considering the phrase μη τηρησαντας την εαυτων αρχην "who did not keep their own position of authority", the word αρχη has several meanings, including "beginning", "ruler", "position of authority", and "dominion". Since this word appears with the verb τηρεω "to keep" and the pronoun εαυτων "their own", the meaning that fits is "position of authority". This meaning appears also in Lk 20:20 and in several LXX passages, including Ge 40:13, 20-21, 41:13. Considering also τον ομοιον τουτοις τροπον "after the manner of these", a question to be addressed is whether "these" refers to the angels of Jude 1:6 or to the men of Jude 1:4. While angels are unable to commit the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah (Mt 22:30, Mk 12:25), they could sin in a similar manner. Thus, given the context of "these", it must refer to the angels. Just as the aforementioned angels did not keep the position of authority for which they were made, so also the people of Sodom and Gomorrah did not keep themselves in God's will but turned to immorality; they even went after strange flesh. However, this is also similar to the way any willful sins are done: one turns away from something that God has meant for him in order to gratify desires of the sinful nature. From this perspective, the way of the sinner is like the way that led Sodom and Gomorrah to their sins. Not only this, but also the judgment of the unrepentant sinner is like the judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah, for they have been set forth as a warning of the eternal fire (see also 2Pt 2:6).

Jude 1:8 ομοιως μεντοι και ουτοι ενυπνιαζομενοι σαρκα μεν μιαινουσιν κυριοτητα δε αθετουσιν δοξας δε βλασφημουσιν

"These men also, dreaming likewise, defile the flesh, set aside authorities, and slander glorious beings." The present tense of the verbs of this verse is proof that ουτοι "these" refers to the men of Jude 1:4; thus, ουτοι was translated "these men". The manner in which the men of Jude 1:4 have dreamed is compared to that of the men of Sodom and Gomorrah. The word δοξας "glorious beings" refers to angels of God (not to fallen angels); this could be inferred in two ways: first by considering 2Pt 2:10-11, and second by noting that in Jude 1:14 the gender of αγιαις "holy ones" fits the gender of δοζας "glorious beings".

Considering the Bible usage of the noun "dream" and the verb "to dream" (that is, חלום "dream" and חלם "to dream" in the Old Testament, and ενυπνιον "dream" and ενυπνιαζομαι "to dream" in the New Testament and LXX), they seem to be used only in reference to dreams that occur during sleep. While these words are sometimes used for ordinary dreams, as in Ps 73:20, Is 29:8, they are typically used for dreams perceived to be prophetic. The Bible speaks often about special dreams from God, such as in Ac 2:17, while mentioning also dreams that are falsely perceived to be prophetic, such as in Jer 27:9, 29:8. Considering ενυπνιαζομενοι "dreaming" in Jude 1:8, it must refer to people that were erroneously thinking that some of their dreams were from God. Related to Jude 1:8 is De 13:1-5 (2-6), in which חלם חלום "one dreaming a dream", translated ενυπνιαζομενος ενυπνιον in LXX, refers to a person who misleads others by means of what he dreamed. In Jude 1:8, since ομοιως "likewise" modifies ενυπνιαζομενοι "dreaming", the implication is that these men have been dreaming in a manner similar to that of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah. As common in the Bible, the focus here must be on dreams perceived to be prophetic. The passage indicates that the manner of dreaming, not the dream content, has been similar with that of Sodom and Gomorrah. So Jude 1:8 indicates that the people of Sodom and Gomorrah were having deceitful dreams, just like the lost persons described in this passage. Now Jude 1:8 does not imply that each of these men has had false prophetic dreams and paid attention to them. Indeed, we do not read "each of these men ... " but simply "these men".

Considering the phrase σαρκα μεν μιαινουσιν "defile the flesh", it could be noted that while the verb μιαινω "to defile" appears only 5 times in the New Testament, it is very frequent in the LXX, where it translates טמא "to defile" and חלל "to profane". Note that defilement is not about a condition of the physical body that could be removed by washing the body, but about a lasting condition of a person that may have no visible manifestation in the physical body. When we read about the defilement of the flesh, it is not the physical body that is referred to, but the inward being of man, which also has a part known as "flesh". This flesh is defiled by sin; as stated in the Scripture, sin defiles both spirit and flesh (2Co 7:1). Any sin defiles, not just the sins of gross immorality.

Jude 1:9 ο δε μιχαηλ ο αρχαγγελος οτε τω διαβολω διακρινομενος διελεγετο περι του μωσεως σωματος ουκ ετολμησεν κρισιν επενεγκειν βλασφημιας αλλ ειπεν επιτιμησαι σοι κυριος

"But Michael, the chief angel, when accused by the devil, was arguing concerning the organized body of Moses. Michael did not dare to bring a slanderous judgment, but said, 'The Lord rebuke thee.'" Concerning the body of Moses, note that the word σωμα "body" can refer not only to a physical body but also figuratively to a group of people, as in το σωμα του χριστου "the body of Christ" (Col 2:17) and το σωμα του βασιλευς "the body of the king" (1Ch 28:1). Another reference to this meaning of the word σωμα could be found in the definition of the word σωματοποιεω, which literally means "to make a body" and is defined "to make into a body, organize" in the Liddell-Scott lexicon. Thus, του μωσεως σωματος was translated above "the organized body of Moses", as referring to the people that became one body by following the teachings delivered by the Lord through Moses.

Jude 1:9 refers to a specific occasion in which Michael had a dispute with the devil about the body of Moses, namely an occasion mentioned in the Scriptures. Without question, Michael must have had many other similar disputes. The occasion mentioned in Jude 1:9 matches Zec 3:1-2. Note that יגער יהוה בך "the LORD rebuke thee" appears twice in Zec 3:2. The fact that Zec 3:2 states that the Lord said these things to Satan does not mean that the words were not spoken through the angel. The Lord often speaks through angels; Michael was simply saying what the Lord had instructed him to say. That Michael was the one speaking could be inferred from the fact he has been in charge of Israel (Dan 12:1, 10:21) and that the dispute was about a very important person among those following the law, which are denoted as the body of Moses.

The opposition of Satan is mentioned explicitly in Zec 3:1: והשטן עמד על ימינו לשטנו "and Satan stood at his right hand to oppose him." Clearly, Satan was opposing Michael by claiming that he was doing something wrong. Michael did not respond to slander with slander, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee." The point that Michael replied without slanderous words could have been made without mentioning what the dispute was about. Since the topic of the dispute is mentioned, it is clear that the verse emphasizes not only that Michael did not slander, but also the topic of the dispute. As could be seen from Zec 3, the dispute was about the salvation of Joshua, the high priest; he was getting saved. As an unsaved high priest, Joshua illustrates the point of the epistle, that there are unsaved people associated with the church that need to be saved. The epistle invites believers to carry out the work that helps their unsaved come to faith.

Now οτε τω διαβολω διακρινομενος "when accused by the devil" is often interpreted as "when contending with the devil". However, the latter interpretation seems somewhat unlikely because the text has οτε τω διαβολω διακρινομενος instead of οτε διακρινομενος προς τον διαβολον (cf. Ac 11:2, Eze 20:35-36, Joel 3:2). As written, the text has οτε τω διαβολω διακρινομενος, which resembles δικαζομενον και διακρινομενον παση τη γη in Jer 15:10. Note that δικαζομενον is a passive form, not a middle form, for a middle form would mean "pleading for myself", which does not fit well Jer 15:10. Then, if δικαζομενον is passive, it follows that διακρινομενον is also passive. Therefore, δικαζομενον και διακρινομενον παση τη γη means "condemned and judged by the entire land". Thus, comparing Jude 1:9 with Jer 15:10, taking the dative case of τω διαβολω as an indication that διακρινομενος is a passive form, not a middle form, it follows that τω διαβολω διακρινομενος means "judged by the devil", that is, "accused by the devil".

Jude 1:10 ουτοι δε οσα μεν ουκ οιδασιν βλασφημουσιν οσα δε φυσικως ως τα αλογα ζωα επιστανται εν τουτοις φθειρονται

"But these men slander whatever they do not know. Whatever things they understand with their natural mind, like speechless creatures, by these they are corrupted." This verse speaks of people who do not have the Holy Spirit to help them discern spiritual things (1Co 2:14-15). It also speaks of the fact that they are unable to follow correctly what they do understand (Ro 8:7, 7:13, Eph 4:22). The passage uses words meant to wake up believers who think that such men are just fine. It invites them to realize that such men are not fine, but are in desperate need of the Lord Jesus.

Jude 1:11 ουαι αυτοις οτι τη οδω του καιν επορευθησαν και τη πλανη του βαλααμ μισθου εξεχυθησαν και τη αντιλογια του κορε απωλοντο

"Woe to them, for they have walked in the way of Cain, and have given themselves up to the error of Balam's wages, and have perished in Korah's rebellion." The Lord told Cain in Ge 4:7 that sin was seated at the entrance and that Cain had to rule over it. Sin had a leadership role for Cain, as it was seated at the entrance of his inner being and was affecting whatever could come in or out. Cain did not rule over it, but yielded to his sinful desires. Thus, one walking in the way of Cain yields to sinful desires. Note that Jude 1:11 is not about people who have committed Cain's sins, but about people yielding to sin like Cain. As for Balaam, he considered material gain more important than the ways of the Lord. A person for whom Jesus is not Lord places something else above Jesus, perhaps material gain, or maybe personal happiness; like Balaam, he considers that other things are more important than the Lord. Now the unsaved people mentioned in Jude 1:11 are said to have perished in Korah's rebellion. The statement that they have perished can be explained as follows. The epistle speaks about unsaved people that have been attracted to Christ, joined the church, and stopped moving towards the Lord. Thus, at some point, they stopped listening to the Lord. By rejecting those bringing to them the words of God, they resemble Korah. When they were listening, they had some spiritual life, for they were allowing the Spirit of life to work in them. When they stopped listening, they lost their spiritual life and in this sense perished. However, while physically alive, they still have the opportunity to change their mind and be saved. They are like branches that have been cut off (Jn 15:6, Ro 11:20) and that can become alive if grafted in (Ro 11:23).

Jude 1:12-13 ουτοι εισιν εν ταις αγαπαις υμων σπιλαδες συνευωχουμενοι αφοβως εαυτους ποιμαινοντες νεφελαι ανυδροι υπο ανεμων περιφερομεναι δενδρα φθινοπωρινα ακαρπα δις αποθανοντα εκριζωθεντα κυματα αγρια θαλασσης επαφριζοντα τας εαυτων αισχυνας αστερες πλανηται οις ο ζοφος του σκοτους εις τον αιωνα τετηρηται

"These are stains in your love feasts, feasting together without fear, shepherding themselves. These are clouds without water, carried along by winds; fruitless autumn trees, twice dead, uprooted; wild waves of the sea foaming up their own shame; wandering celestial bodies for whom the blackness of darkness is kept for the age." Considering the word σπιλαδες "stains, spots", a person is washed when he is saved (1Co 6:11). The phrases νεφελαι ανυδροι "clouds without water" and δενδρα φθινοπωρινα ακαρπα "fruitless autumn trees" reminded the hearer that apart from Christ one cannot do anything. As for επαφριζοντα τας εαυτων αισχυνας "foaming up their own shame", it could remind one that the mouth speaks from the abundance of the heart (Lk 6:45) and that the heart is made right with God after one comes to the faith. The word αστερες "lights, flames, stars, ... " was translated "heavenly bodies". In conformity with the modern use of the English word "star", the word αστερες cannot be translated "stars" since Jude 1:13 must refer to comets or visible asteroids. As these move away from the sun, they move into deep darkness. The phrase ο ζοφος του σκοτους "the blackness of darkness" refers to the darkest part of darkness, that is, the blackest darkness. Men who reject the words of the Lord are in darkness and are headed to the deepest darkness. The phrase εις τον αιωνα "for the age" is commonly translated "forever". It could be contrasted with εις παντας τους αιωνας "for all ages" in Jude 1:25, which also is commonly translated "forever". The phrase εις τον αιωνα "for the age" indicates that the deepest darkness is reserved for wandering heavenly bodies during the period of this age. The heavens are not for all ages, but a time comes when the heavens will wear out and be changed liked a garment (Heb 1:11-12), for "we look for new heavens and a new earth" (2Pt 3:13).

Jude 1:14-15 προεφητευσεν δε και τουτοις εβδομος απο αδαμ ενωχ λεγων ιδου ηλθεν κυριος εν μυριασιν αγιαις αυτου ποιησαι κρισιν κατα παντων και εξελεγξαι παντας τους ασεβεις αυτων περι παντων των εργων ασεβειας αυτων ων ησεβησαν και περι παντων των σκληρων ων ελαλησαν κατ αυτου αμαρτωλοι ασεβεις

"But Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied also to these, saying, 'Behold, the Lord came with ten thousands of his holy ones to do judgment against all and to convict all their irreverent concerning all their irreverent deeds which they have wickedly committed, and concerning all the harsh things which irreverent sinners have spoken against him.'" This passage makes a reference to the Hebrew text of De 33:2-3; see the article On Jude 1:14-15. Thus, from God's word in Jude 1:14-15, it can be inferred that De 33:2-3 quotes Enoch. There is evidence that the Lord had revealed to previous generations the form in which De 33:2-3 is rendered in Jude and that Enoch was quoted in De 33:2-3. First, the point of Jude 1:14-15 was not to reveal new information but to remind the hearers that their unsaved men were convicted of sin by the law. So it seems quite likely that many of the original hearers of Jude were familiar with the prophecy of Enoch. Second, the apocryphal Book of Enoch quotes the prophecy of Enoch in a form similar to that of Jude 1:14-15. So before the Book of Enoch was written, the form in which Enoch's words appear in Jude 1:14-15 and the fact that Enoch was quoted in De 33:2-3 became so well known that even an author of apocryphal literature (probably an outsider) became aware of them.

Jude 1:16 ουτοι εισιν γογγυσται μεμψιμοιροι κατα τας επιθυμιας αυτων πορευομενοι και το στομα αυτων λαλει υπερογκα θαυμαζοντες προσωπα ωφελειας χαριν

"These are grumblers, complainers, walking according to their own desires, and their mouth speaks high-sounding words, flattering people for the sake of profit." The word γογγυσται "grumblers" corresponds to the verb γογγυζω "to grumble, murmur", which corresponds to the Hebrew verb לון "to murmur", such as in Nu 14:27. The word μεμψιμοιροι "complainers" would fit the Hebrew verb אנן "to complain", which appears in Nu 11:1. Note that both Hebrew verbs have been used to describe attitudes displeasing to the Lord.

Jude 1:17-18 υμεις δε αγαπητοι μνησθητε των ρηματων των προειρημενων υπο των αποστολων του κυριου ημων ιησου χριστου οτι ελεγον υμιν οτι εν εσχατω χρονω εσονται εμπαικται κατα τας εαυτων επιθυμιας πορευομενοι των ασεβειων

"But ye, beloved, remember the words spoken beforehand by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, that they were saying to you that in the last time there will be mockers walking according to their own irreverent desires." Here, there is a reference to 2Pt 3:3 which states that ελευσονται επ εσχατου των ημερων εμπαικται κατα τας ιδιας αυτων επιθυμιας πορευομενοι "mockers will come in the last days walking according to their own desires."

Jude 1:19 ουτοι εισιν οι αποδιοριζοντες ψυχικοι πνευμα μη εχοντες

"These are natural men without the Spirit that cause divisions." This verse does not identify the only persons who cause divisions. The Greek phrase ουτοι εισιν οι is used in statements that identify persons belonging to a certain category, without implying that there are no other persons in that category. For example, Nu 26:9 in LXX does not identify all men who opposed Moses and Aaron, and Rev 14:4 is unlikely to state that there are no other persons following the Lord wherever he goes (see for example Hag 2:23). Another example is provided by ταυτα εστιν τα καλα και ωφελιμα "these are good and profitable" in Tit 3:8, which was not meant to follow an exhaustive list of good and profitable things for men. Still another related example appears in τουτο δε εστιν το θελημα "But this is the will" in Jn 6:39, since it does not say that there are no other things that are God's will.

Jude 1:20-21 υμεις δε αγαπητοι τη αγιωτατη υμων πιστει εποικοδομουντες εαυτους εν πνευματι αγιω προσευχομενοι εαυτους εν αγαπη θεου τηρησατε προσδεχομενοι το ελεος του κυριου ημων ιησου χριστου εις ζωην αιωνιον

"But ye, beloved, building yourselves up by your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in God's love, receiving the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ for eternal life." Believers, when keeping themselves in God's love (Jn 15:10), will also love and will receive the mercy of the Lord enabling them to minister to the lost and lead them to eternal life. The verb προσδεχομαι means "to receive" or "to wait for". When the object of the verb refers to something that is present, the verb means "to receive"; if the object refers to something that is not yet present, the verb means "to wait for". The form προσδεχομενοι was translated "receiving" to emphasize the nearness of the grace of the Lord leading to salvation. The Lord had this epistle written precisely because he is willing to save the lost.

Jude 1:22-23 και ους μεν ελεειτε διακρινομενοι ους δε εν φοβω σωζετε εκ του πυρος αρπαζοντες μισουντες και τον απο της σαρκος εσπιλωμενον χιτωνα

"And be merciful on some using discernment; save others with fear, grabbing them from the fire, hating also the garment defiled by the flesh." The Byzantine text has διακρινομενοι "using discernment"; it emphasizes that one should walk in wisdom towards the lost (Col 4:5). Care should also be exercised to avoid getting caught into a sin, as emphasized by Jude 1:23. In the phrase εκ του πυρος αρπαζοντες "grabbing them from the fire", note that the fire does not stand for destructive or scandalous sin. For example, without question, the high priest Joshua was seeking to follow the law at the time when he was plucked out of the fire (Zec 3:2). Rather, fire has been associated with the wrath of God (Jer 4:4, Ps 89:46 (47), Na 1:6, Eze 22:31), which is on those who are not persuaded by the faith (Jn 3:36, Eph 2:3). Believers have put off the old man (Col 3:9) and are asked to put on the new man (Eph 4:24). So the old man is like a garment that has been put off. The old man should not be loved, lest the old sinful ways are followed; people should be loved, not their sinful nature. Thus, those who save people should be hating not just the sins but "also the garment defiled by the flesh," watching themselves lest they too be tempted (Ga 6:1).

Jude 1:24-25 τω δε δυναμενω φυλαξαι αυτους απταιστους και στησαι κατενωπιον της δοξης αυτου αμωμους εν αγαλλιασει μονω σοφω θεω σωτηρι ημων δοξα και μεγαλωσυνη κρατος και εξουσια και νυν και εις παντας τους αιωνας αμην

"To the one who is able to keep them from stumbling and to make them stand blameless before his glory with great joy, to the only wise God, our savior, be glory and greatness, strength and authority, both now and for all ages. Amen." Following the Byzantine text, Jude 1:24 has αυτους "them" instead of υμας "you". This emphasizes that the Lord is able to save the lost, keep them from stumbling, and make them stand before his glorious presence. It is to be greatly desired that God should manifest in this present time his glory and greatness, his strength and authority, and by this to impact all ages. By saving people, the Lord impacts all subsequent ages, for the saved have eternal life and will be forever with exceeding joy in his glorious presence.