Sequence of Gospel Events

Version Date: July 25, 2020.

The introduction to the Gospel of Matthew (Mt 1:1)

Mt 1:1 could be translated, "Written account about Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham." In this interpretation Mt 1:1 is equivalent to a book title and can thus be separated from the subsequent genealogy. This interpretation of Mt 1:1 could be justified as follows. The phrase βιβλος γενεσεως was translated here "written account". The word βιβλος denotes something written, such as a book or a certificate. Moreover, the word γενεσις can refer to the life of a person, as in Jms 3:6. Thus, βιβλος γενεσεως ιησου χριστου could be rendered "Book about the life of Jesus Christ", or "Written account about Jesus Christ". Now, an alternative interpretation is to assume the meaning "genealogy" for γενεσις in Mt 1:1. However, there are two reasons that make this alternative view quite unlikely. One reason is that Mt 1:2-16 contains the genealogy of Joseph, not the genealogy of Jesus. The second reason is that the meaning "genealogy" in Mt 1:1 assumes an unusual usage of the word γενεσις. In the LXX, when the word γενεσις refers to a genealogy, it precedes a list of descendants (Ge 5:1, 10:1, 11:10, 36:9, Ru 4:18). However, in Mt 1:1 this word precedes a list of ancestors, not descendants, which makes it is unlikely that it is used with the meaning of "genealogy". Thus, the assumption that γενεσις means "genealogy" in Mt 1:1 requires also the assumption that the usage of this word in Matthew is inconsistent with the Old Testament usage. As for the view that the word γενεσις should be associated with the life of a person, the Old Testament has abundant evidence for this. It could be noted first that the phrase βιβλος γενεσεως of Mt 1:1 appears also in Ge 2:4 and Ge 5:1 in the LXX. In the translation of Ge 5:1 from Hebrew to Greek, βιβλος corresponds to ספר and γενεσις to תולדות. By considering also other passages, it can be seen that γενεσις appears consistently in the translation of the Hebrew word תולדות. While this Hebrew word is traditionally translated "generations", it does not have the common meaning of the word "generations" in contemporary English. Rather, the word תולדות being related to the verb ילד "to beget", a verb that is used also figuratively, it refers to that which is generated by one, that is, his life and possibly descendants (Ge 6:9, 10:1, 11:27, 25:12, 25:19, 36:1, 37:2, Nu 3:1, 1Ch 1:29). There are also a few other ways in which the word תולדות has been used. While תולדות is typically not used in the context of genealogies, it also introduces genealogies in Ge 5:1, 10:1, 11:10, 36:9, and Ru 4:18. This is consistent with the fact that the word can refer to one's life, including descendants and their life. As stated above for the word γενεσις, it can be noted also for תולדות that in all these genealogies it precedes lists of descendants, not ancestors.

Index

The identity of Jesus (Mk 1:1, Jn 1:1-5)

Index

The introduction of the Gospel of Luke (Lk 1:1-4)

Index

The genealogy of Joseph (Mt 1:2-17)

Note that the genealogy of Mary, and thus also of Jesus, is given in Lk 3:23-28; see the note below on Lk 3:23-28.

Index

The birth of John the Baptist is foretold (Lk 1:5-25)

In view of Lk 1:26 and Lk 1:36, Elizabeth was in her first month of pregnancy during the first month of the Hebrew calendar (see also the note below on Lk 1:26-38). This month overlaps with the months of March and April of our calendar. It follows that the angel Gabriel was sent to Zacharias during or before the first month, that is, no later than April. As for the five month period mentioned in Lk 1:24, this would appear to correspond to the interval between the Feast of Weeks, which is in the 3rd month of the Hebrew calendar, and the Feast of Tabernacles, which is in the 7th month. Thus, the five months are the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th months. Since μηνας "months" in Lk 1:24 is not preceded by ως or ωσει, it was understood here to denote the number of calendar months during the interval of time in which Elizabeth hid herself.

Location: In the temple.

Index

The birth of Jesus is foretold (Lk 1:26-38)

Note that the location is mentioned in Lk 1:26. As stated in Lk 1:26, this happened during the sixth month of the Hebrew calendar; this month overlaps with the months of August and September of our calendar. Specifying dates by means of the month number is very common in the Old Testament; see for example Hag 1:1 in the LXX. As for the year of this passage, it follows from the year of birth of Jesus; see the note below on Lk 2:1-7.

Location: Nazareth.

Time: August-September of the year preceding the birth of Jesus.

Index

Mary visits Elizabeth (Lk 1:39-56)

Understanding the phrase εμεινεν δε μαριαμ συν αυτη ωσει μηνας τρεις "Mary remained with her about three months" in Lk 1:56 to imply that they did not travel during that time, it would seem reasonable to assume that Mary came to Elizabeth after the Feast of Tabernacles, which was from the 15th to the 22nd of the 7th month. (Note that the 7th month overlaps with the months of October and November of our calendar.) This would imply that Mary came during or after the 7th month of Elizabeth. It would appear then that Mary was with Elizabeth when John was born.

Location: The hill country of Judah.

Index

The birth of John the Baptist (Lk 1:57-58)

Since Elizabeth was in her 6th month in August or September of the year preceding the birth of Jesus (see the note above on Lk 1:26-38), the birth of John the Baptist could have happened in December or the following year in January.

Location: The hill country of Judah.

Index

John is circumcised (Lk 1:59-66)

Location: The hill country of Judah.

Time: The 8th day, counting beginning with the day of birth.

Index

The prophecy of Zechariah (Lk 1:67-79)

Since Lk 1:67-79 does not mention some other occasion in which Zechariah prophesied, it is assumed here that this happened when John was circumcised.

Location: The hill country of Judah.

Time: The 8th day, counting beginning with the day of birth.

Index

An angel of the Lord speaks to Joseph in a dream (Mt 1:18-25)

Index

The birth of Jesus (Lk 2:1-7)

If Mary conceived soon after the angel Gabriel spoke to her, the birth of Jesus could have been in June or July. This is because the angel Gabriel came in August or September of the preceding year (see the note above on Lk 1:26-38). It is clear that Mary had already conceived by the time she visited Elizabeth. Indeed, in Lk 1:42-43 Elizabeth told Mary that the fruit of her womb is blessed and she called her "the mother of my Lord". Mary likely came to Elizabeth sometime after the Feast of Tabernacles (see the note above on Lk 1:39-56), perhaps in the November of that year. Now, since the baby could leap in the womb of Elizabeth (Lk 1:41), it is clear that Mary did not come later than November, for John was likely born in December or January (see the note above on Lk 1:57-66). Thus, it seems rather unlikely that the birth of Jesus could have been after the subsequent month of August.

The year of birth of Jesus could be obtained as follows. Assuming that the year of Ne 2:1 is 444 BC, in view of Dan 9:26, the year AD 33 can be obtained for the death of Jesus. References to the age of Jesus during his ministry appear in Lk 3:23 and Jn 8:57. The word ωσει in the phrase ωσει ετων τριακοντα of Lk 3:23, where the phrase is commonly translated "about thirty years old", indicates a rounding of the age of the Lord. This is not understood here as a rounding to an integer number of years, but as a rounding to a multiple of 10. Then, Lk 3:23 would indicate that Jesus was in his thirties. The range of the age of Jesus at the time of Lk 3:23 could be narrowed down based on Jn 8:57. Since Jesus was not told in Jn 8:57 that he was less than 40 years old, but that he was less than 50 years old, we infer that he was in his forties at the time of Jn 8:57. The passage of Jn 8:57 took place in the context of the Feast of Tabernacles, apparently in the year preceding the death of Jesus, that is, AD 32. As for the time of Lk 3:23, it could be noted that the Gospels do not seem to imply much time between the baptism of Jesus and the Passover Feast that followed sometime afterwards, which is mentioned in Jn 2:23-25. The year of Jn 2:23-25 appears to be AD 30 (see the note below on Jn 2:23-35). Since Jesus' birthday was in the summer, thus between the Passover Feast and the Feast of the Tabernacles, it follows that his age was in the range 37 ...39 years at the time of the Passover Feast of Jn 2:23-25 and at the time of Lk 3:23. It follows that the year of birth of Jesus is in the range 10 ... 8 BC.

Location: Bethlehem.

Time: 10...8 BC, during the summer.

Index

The birth of the Messiah is declared (Lk 2:8-20)

Location: Bethlehem.

Time: 10...8 BC, during the summer.

Index

Jesus is circumcised (Lk 2:21)

Time: The 8th day, counting beginning with the day of birth.

Index

Jesus is presented in the temple (Lk 2:22-24)

As indicated in Lk 2:22, this happened after the days of purification were completed. As written in the law, after giving birth to a son, a woman was ceremonially unclean for seven days (Lev 12:2). Moreover, 33 more days were required before she could come to the temple, offer the prescribed sacrifices, and be purified (Lev 12:4-8).

Location: In the temple.

Time: The 41st day.

Index

The prophecy of Simeon (Lk 2:25-35)

Location: In the temple.

Time: The 41st day.

Index

The prophetess Anna speaks about Jesus (Lk 2:36-38)

Location: In the temple.

Time: The 41st day.

Index

Joseph and Mary return to Nazareth (Lk 2:39-40)

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The wise men come to Jerusalem (Mt 2:1-8)

The wise men were not seeing a regular star, for it could appear and disappear, guide them in the right way, and pinpoint the house where they could find Jesus (Mt 2:9). Therefore, this star was supernatural. The Scripture does not seem to say anything about natural astronomical phenomena taking place at the time of the birth of Jesus. While it is possible that there were also such phenomena in addition to the supernatural star, since the Scripture does not seem to say anything on this topic, it is unclear whether the date of the birth of Jesus could be determined by searching for natural astronomical phenomena that happened in that period of time. Now Mt 2:16 mentions that Herod, when seeking to kill the Messiah, decided the age of the children that should be killed according to the time when the star appeared. Since he killed children 2 years old and under, it follows that the star had appeared two years earlier. Assuming that the star appeared when Jesus was born (cf. Nu 24:17), the wise men came about 2 years after the birth of Jesus. As for Herod, the reason he killed not only 2 year old children but also younger children might be that he did not know whether the star had appeared when the Messiah was born or before he was born. Mt 2:16 also implies that Herod understood that the wise man had found the child, and therefore that the King of Israel had been born, just as the wise men had already stated in Mt 2:2. Since Herod killed children 2 years old and under, that is, children that had lived for less than 3 years, and since the birth of Jesus was about 10 ... 8 BC (see the note above on Lk 2:1-7), it follows that the wise men came about 8 ... 5 BC.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: About 8 ... 5 BC.

Index

The wise men find Jesus (Mt 2:9-12)

Since the prophecy was that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, Herod must have thought that the Messiah was living in Bethlehem. So he sent the wise men there. However, since Joseph and Mary had returned from Bethlehem (Lk 2:39), the wise men must have found Jesus in Nazareth. Given that Mt 2:11 states that the wise men entered the house, it could be concluded that they found Jesus in the house of Joseph and Mary in Nazareth.

Location: Nazareth.

Time: About 8 ... 5 BC.

Index

Joseph and Mary escape to Egypt (Mt 2:13-15)

Assuming that the wise men departed early in the morning, it may be that the angel spoke to Joseph on the following night.

Time: About 8 ... 5 BC.

Index

Herod kills children in Bethlehem (Mt 2:16-18)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 2:16 indicates that this verse took place soon after Joseph and Mary departed. See also the note above on Mt 2:1-8.

Time: About 8 ... 5 BC.

Index

Joseph and Mary return from Egypt (Mt 2:19-23)

As stated in Mt 2:15, 19, Joseph and Mary were in Egypt until the death of Herod. Note that the angel used the plural in τεθνηκασιν γαρ οι ζητουντες την ψυχην του παιδιου "for those who sought the life of the child have died" (Mt 2:20). This would imply that Herod was the last to die among those seeking the life of the child.

Index

Jesus at the temple when 12 years old (Lk 2:41-52)

This passage describes events that took place when Jesus was 12 years old, about the time of the Passover Feast (Lk 2:41-42). As calculated in the note above on Lk 2:1-7, Jesus was 37 ... 39 years old at the time of the Passover Feast of AD 30. It follows that when he was 12 years old the Passover Feast was in AD 3 ... 5.

Time: The period of a Passover Feast in AD 3 ... 5.

Index

John the Baptist and the ministry of Jesus (Jn 1:6-14)

This passage is seen here as an introduction to the ministry of John the Baptist. In Jn 1:9, the statement that the true light was coming into the world is understood here to mean that Jesus was about to begin his ministry. Indeed, after Jesus finished his ministry to the world, before being arrested, he said "I am no longer in the world" (Jn 17:11); see also the second half of Jn 7:4.

Index

John the Baptist preaches in the wilderness (Mt 3:1-6, Mk 1:2-6, Lk 3:1-6)

The word of God came to John in the wilderness (Lk 3:2). He preached in the wilderness of Judah (Mt 3:1) and baptized in the wilderness (Mk 1:4). As mentioned in Lk 3:3, John the Baptist went throughout the region around the Jordan River. The word τοτε "then" in Mt 3:5 indicates that the people reacted promptly to the preaching of John and began coming to him. Of course, this does not mean that all came at once, but rather that after John began preaching, they started coming to him.

Location: The region around the Jordan River.

Index  Sequence

John the Baptist calls for repentance and speaks about the Messiah (Mt 3:7-12, Mk 1:7-8, Lk 3:7-18)

Since Mt 3:13 begins with the word τοτε "then", Mt 3:13 must have followed soon after Mt 3:12. Therefore, the time and location of this event must be the same as for the baptism of Jesus. In principle, Mk 1:7-8 and Lk 3:7-17 do not have to correspond to Mt 3:7-12. However, since much of their text is identical or almost identical to the text found in Mt 3:7-12, it seems possible that they do correspond to the same occasion. Moreover, it could be noted that the context of Lk 3:7-17 is the same as that of Mt 3:7-12. Indeed, Mt 3:7-12 happened right before the baptism of Jesus, Lk 3:21 states that Jesus was baptized when all the people were baptized, and Lk 3:7-17 is in the context of the people coming to be baptized. Thus, Mt 3:7-12 took place when all the people were baptized, just as Lk 3:7-17.

The Gospels do not seem to imply much time between the baptism of Jesus and the Passover Feast of Jn 2:23-25. Assuming that Jesus was crucified in AD 33, the year of Jn 2:23-25 is AD 30 (see the note below on Jn 2:23-35). Therefore, it would appear that Jesus was baptized in AD 30, or perhaps towards the end of AD 29.

Location: At the Jordan River.

Time: AD 30.

Index  Sequence

The baptism of Jesus (Mt 3:13-17, Mk 1:9-11, Lk 3:21-22)

Noting the word τοτε "then" of Mt 3:13, this took place soon after Mt 3:12.

Location: At the Jordan River.

Time: AD 30.

Index  Sequence

The genealogy of Jesus (Lk 3:23-28)

Note that Jesus is the subject of Lk 3:23, and thus the genealogy that follows is not that of Joseph but that of Jesus through Mary. In other words, ηλι "Heli" was the father of Mary, not the father of Joseph. The genealogy of Joseph is found in Mt 1:2-17. Joseph is named in Lk 3:23 in order to show who people supposed to be the father of Jesus.

Index

Jesus is tested forty days (Mt 4:1-2, Mk 1:12-13a, Lk 4:1-2)

At the end of Mk 1:13 we read και οι αγγελοι διηκονουν αυτω "and the angels were ministering to him". This is interpreted here as stating that there was at least one time when the angels came and ministered to Jesus. Mt 4:11 states that after the tempter left Jesus, the angels came and ministered to him. Thus, it would seem natural to assume that the angels did not come during the 40 day period in which the tempter was present. The fact that Mt 4:11 uses the word ιδου "behold" indicates also that the coming of the angels was not something ordinary. It was not that angels kept ministering to him during the 40 days, but rather that they came to him after the 40 days. Moreover, since the 40 days of temptation appear to follow immediately the baptism of the Lord, it could be concluded that Mk 1:13, when stating that angels ministered to Jesus, does not refer to a period preceding the 40 days of temptation. Therefore, the statement of Mk 1:13 that angels ministered to Jesus, was assumed to refer to the event mentioned in Mt 4:11, and possibly also to other subsequent occasions.

Location: In the wilderness.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is tested (Mt 4:3-11, Mk 1:13b, Lk 4:3-13)

Since the Lord fasted for only forty days, it follows that he ate on the day following the 40 day period. Since Lk 4:2 and Mt 4:2 state that after the 40 day period he was hungry, the implication is that the temptations described in Mt 4:3-11 and Lk 4:3-13 took place before he ate, while his physical condition was at its weakest point. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that the temptations of Mt 4:3-11 and Lk 4:3-13 took place on the day following the 40 days of fasting, before he ate on that day.

Clearly, a person can have the same temptation more than once. So also here Mt 4:3-11 and Lk 4:3-13 are interpreted as describing different occasions. The temptations appear to have happened in the following order: first Mt 4:3-7, then Lk 4:3-12, then Mt 4:8-10. This order could be justified as follows. Understanding the phrase προσελθων αυτω ο πειραζων ειπεν "after the tempter came to him he said" to indicate that the temptation of Mt 4:3-4 took place soon after the tempter came, it follows that Lk 4:3-4 cannot precede Mt 4:3-4. The differences between Mt 4:3-4 and Lk 4:3-4 suggest that Mt 4:3-4 and Lk 4:3-4 do not describe the same occasion. Therefore, Lk 4:3-12 must follow Mt 4:3-4. The word τοτε "then" in Mt 4:5 implies that Mt 4:5-7 followed immediately after Mt 4:3-4. It follows that Lk 4:3-12 happened after Mt 4:3-7. Note that the last temptation in Lk 4:3-12 does not coincide with the last temptation of Mt 4:3-11, so it cannot be that they correspond to the same occasion. Since the word τοτε "then" in Mt 4:11 implies that the tempter left Jesus immediately after the temptation of Mt 4:8-10, it follows that Lk 4:3-12 must have happened before Mt 4:8-10. So we conclude that Lk 4:3-12 took place between Mt 4:5-7 and Mt 4:8-10.

While it is not hard to imagine that the tempter would tempt Jesus more than once to turn stones into bread, it might not be immediately apparent why he would tempt Jesus twice to throw himself down from the pinnacle of the temple. Assuming the order mentioned above, Jesus was tempted a second time to throw himself from the pinnacle of the temple in Lk 4:9-12. This temptation followed a temptation in which Jesus was shown the glory of human leaders (Lk 4:5-8). The tempter might have hoped that after seeing how the greatest leaders were honored on earth, Jesus would have sought honor for himself by showing that he receives supernatural protection.

Location: In the wilderness.

Time: The day following the 40 days of fasting.

Index  Sequence

John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (Jn 1:15-18)

While the time when John the Baptist spoke these words is not mentioned explicitly, it is clear that this took place after the baptism of Jesus. Indeed, before Jesus was baptized, John did not know who was the one coming after him (Jn 1:31-34).

Index

John the Baptist testifies to priests and Levites (Jn 1:19-28)

The following remarks could be made to show that this event took place after the 40 days of fasting of Jesus. First, the baptism of Jesus took place before Jn 1:32-34. Second, the forty days of fasting were in the wilderness, and Jesus was in the wilderness shortly after his baptism (note τοτε "then" in Mt 4:1 and ευθυς "immediately" in Mk 1:12). Third, as indicated in Jn 1:29-2:11, Jesus was not in the wilderness at the time of Jn 1:32-34 and during the next four days.

The location is mentioned in Jn 1:28. In the context of Jn 1:9-14, since the Lord was typically on the west side of the Jordan River, the phrase περαν του ιορδανου "across the Jordan River" must refer to the east side of the river. So Bethabara was east of the Jordan River. The leaders in Jerusalem mentioned in Jn 1:19 probably did not wait long before they sent priests and Levites to question John the Baptist. Therefore, Jn 1:19-28 must have taken place at the beginning of the ministry of John the Baptist. It appears, therefore, that Bethabara is the place where John baptized at first (Jn 10:40). Another place where John baptized at a later time is mentioned in Jn 3:23.

Location: Bethabara.

Index

John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (Jn 1:29-34)

Location: Bethabara.

Time: The day after Jn 1:19-28.

Index

Two disciples of John follow Jesus (Jn 1:35-40)

Location: Bethabara.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28.

Index

Peter meets Jesus (Jn 1:41-42)

Location: Bethabara.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28.

Index

Nathanael meets Jesus (Jn 1:43-51)

Location: Bethabara.

Time: The 4th day, counting beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28.

Index

The Lord returns to Galilee (Lk 4:14)

Index

The wedding in Cana (Jn 2:1-11)

Counting days beginning with the time of the previous passage, the wedding in Cana took place on the third day (Jn 2:1). Counting days beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28, the time of Jn 1:43-51 is the fourth day. So if days are counted beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28, the wedding in Cana took place on the sixth day.

Location: Cana.

Time: The 6th day, counting beginning with the day of Jn 1:19-28.

Index

The Lord goes to Capernaum (Jn 2:12)

As indicated in Jn 2:12, the Lord did not spend many days in Capernaum.

Location: Capernaum.

Index

The Lord goes to the Passover Feast (Jn 2:13)

Index

The Lord cleanses the temple (Jn 2:14-22)

Since the trade going on in the temple area was offending to the Lord, it should not be surprising that Jesus cleansed the temple in more than one occasion. In this chronology there are two other occasions in which Jesus cleansed the temple: one in Mt 21:12b-13 and Lk 19:45b-46, and one in Mk 11:15-17.

Location: The temple.

Index

Jesus performs signs during the feast (Jn 2:23-25)

Following the Passover mentioned in this passage, there are only three other Passovers in the Gospels: the Passover implied by Lk 6:1 (see the note below on Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5), the Passover of Jn 6:2, and the Passover Feast when Jesus died. Assuming that Jesus was crucified in AD 33, it follows that the year of this event is AD 30.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: The Passover Feast of AD 30.

Index

Jesus talks to Nicodemus (Jn 3:1-21)

Location: Jerusalem.

Index

Jesus ministers in the countryside of Judea (Jn 3:22)

Location: Judea.

Index

John the Baptist testifies about Jesus (Jn 3:23-36)

When Jesus went to Bethabara, John testified about him (Jn 1:26-36). So the reference of Jn 3:26 must be to Bethabara. Since the disciples of John stated that Bethabara was περαν του ιορδανου "across the Jordan River" and Bethabara was east of the Jordan River (see the note above on Jn 1:19-28), it could be concluded that Aenon was west of the Jordan River.

Location: Aenon near Salim.

Index

Jesus departs for Galilee (Jn 4:1-3)

Index

Jesus and the Samaritan woman (Jn 4:4-30)

The time of this passage could be inferred from Jn 4:35. Since the fields were white for harvest, the passage must have taken place during the 2nd month of the Hebrew calendar, for the Feast of Harvest (Pentecost) was early in the 3rd month. The four month period until harvest (Jn 4:35) must have referred to the harvest of the fall season, which was complete by the time of the Feast of Tabernacles in the 7th month. All men were expected to come to Jerusalem for the Feast of Harvest, so Jesus must have attended it as well. In this chronology, Jn 5:1 refers to the Feast of Harvest.

Location: Sychar, in Samaria.

Time: The 2nd month of the Hebrew calendar.

Index

"My food is to do the will of the one who has sent me and to finish his work" (Jn 4:31-38)

Location: Sychar, in Samaria.

Time: The 2nd month of the Hebrew calendar.

Index

Jesus stays in Sychar (Jn 4:39-44)

As stated in Jn 4:40, 43, Jesus remained two days in Sychar. The two days appear to be counted as follows. Jesus arrived to the well at the 6th hour (Jn 4:6), that is, about 6pm. (In the Gospel of John, time is with respect to noon or midnight, as mentioned also in the note below on Mt 27:33-38.) Since days were counted from sunset to sunset (Lev 23:32), Jn 4:40 must have happened about the beginning of the first of the two days. Since travel usually began in the morning, Jesus must have spent only part of the second day in Sychar, from the sunset ending the first day to the following morning.

Location: Sychar, in Samaria.

Time: The day after Jn 4:4.

Index

Jesus returns to Galilee (Jn 4:45)

Location: Galilee.

Index

Jesus heals the son of an official (Jn 4:46-54)

The statement that this was the second sign (Jn 4:54) must refer to the fact that this is the second sign described in the Gospel of John. Some earlier signs are mentioned but not described (Jn 2:23). The 7th hour was roughly 7am or 7pm. (In the Gospel of John, time is with respect to noon or midnight, as mentioned also in the note below on Mt 27:33-38.) Assuming 7am, the official must have traveled overnight, as he hurried to find Jesus and bring him to his house. Since he was in a hurry, he probably did not come on foot. When he believed that his son was healed, he probably did not hurry to get back home. He might have also rested along the way. If he came home in the evening, this would have been one day after Jesus told him that his son lives, for days were reckoned from sunset to sunset (Lev 23:32).

Location: Cana.

Index

Jesus heals a man at the pool of Bethesda (Jn 5:1-13)

Note that Jn 5:1 begins with the phrase μετα ταυτα "after these things". Assuming that this phrase is not used for long intervals of time, it would appear that the feast mentioned in Jn 5:1 was the Feast of Harvest (Pentecost), since the previously mentioned feast was the Passover, in Jn 2:13.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: The Feast of Harvest of AD 30.

Index

Jesus warns the man to stop sinning (Jn 5:14-16)

Assuming that the phrase μετα ταυτα "after these things" is not used for long intervals of time, it is clear that there is not much time between Jn 5:13 and Jn 5:14. Now there is evidence that Jn 5:17-47 took place much later, on a different occasion. See the note below on Jn 5:17.

Location: In the temple.

Index

John the Baptist is arrested (Lk 3:19-20)

A description of the circumstances in which John the Baptist was arrested can be found also in Mt 14:3-5 and Mk 6:17-20.

Index

Jesus withdraws to Galilee (Mt 4:12, Mk 1:14-15)

See the note below on Mt 4:17 and Lk 4:15.

Index

The Lord leaves Nazareth and moves to Capernaum (Mt 4:13-16)

Index

Jesus preaches in Galilee (Mt 4:17, Lk 4:15)

Jesus came to Galilee preaching the good news (Mk 1:14-15). As we read in Mt 4:17, after Jesus moved to Capernaum, he began preaching again the good news. The Lord emphasized repentance and the nearness of the kingdom both when he came to Galilee and after he moved to Capernaum.

Location: Galilee.

Index

Jesus is rejected in Nazareth (Lk 4:16-30)

Location: Nazareth.

Index

Jesus calls Peter, Andrew, James, and John (Mt 4:18-22, Mk 1:16-20)

Location: By the Sea of Galilee.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches in the synagogue (Mk 1:21-28, Lk 4:31-37)

Location: The synagogue in Capernaum.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals Peter's mother-in-law (Mk 1:29-31, Lk 4:38-39)

Another time when the Lord healed the mother-in-law of Peter is mentioned in Mt 8:14-15.

Location: Peter's house.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals many (Mk 1:32-34, Lk 4:40-41)

This happened in the evening (Mk 1:32, Lk 4:40) in a house (Mk 1:33), most likely Peter's house. A similar occasion is mentioned in Mt 8:16-17.

Location: Peter's house.

Time: After sunset, once the Sabbath was over.

Index  Sequence

Jesus goes to a desert place to pray (Mk 1:35-38, Lk 4:42-43)

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: Early, the following morning.

Index  Sequence

The Lord preaches throughout Galilee (Mt 4:23, Mk 1:39, Lk 4:44)

Index  Sequence

The Lord teaches the crowd from a boat (Lk 5:1-3)

The lake of Gennesaret (Lk 5:1) is understood here to denote the Sea of Galilee near Gennesaret.

Location: Near Gennesaret.

Index

A miraculous catch of fish (Lk 5:4-11)

As stated in Lk 5:11, Peter, Andrew, John, and James left everything and followed Jesus. This would imply that from this time on they were continually with the Lord. This was not the first time when Peter, Andrew, John, and James began following Jesus. Peter and Andrew were with Jesus after they met him in Jn 1:35-42. Later, Peter, Andrew, John, and James followed Jesus after he called them in Mt 4:18-22 and Mk 1:16-20. Sometime after this the Lord must have allowed them to return to their former occupation, for they were again fishing at the time of Lk 5:4-11. Note that Mt 4:18-22 and Mk 1:16-20 do not state that they left everything to follow Jesus; this must be why they returned to their former occupation. Later, at the time of Lk 5:11, they did leave everything to follow the Lord.

Location: Near Gennesaret.

Index

The Lord heals a leper (Lk 5:12-15)

As mentioned in Lk 5:12, this took place in a city. See the note below on Mt 8:1-4).

Location: In a city.

Index

The Lord heals a leper (Mk 1:40-45a)

See the note below on Mt 8:1-4.

Index

Jesus becomes very famous (Mt 4:24-25)

Index

Jesus withdraws to desert places (Mk 1:45b, Lk 5:16)

Index

The Sermon on the Mount (Mt 5-7)

The fact that people came to be healed after sunset (Mt 8:16) indicates that this happened on a Sabbath.

Location: On the mountain near Capernaum.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The Lord heals a leper (Mt 8:1-4)

There are three similar accounts that mention the Lord Jesus healing a leper: Mt 8:1-4, Mk 1:40-45, and Lk 5:12-15. Clearly, more than one leper must have been in the area, for at some point Jesus healed ten lepers (Lk 17:12-14). Therefore, there is no reason to assume that the three accounts correspond to the same occasion, unless they match perfectly. To see that Mt 8:1-4 does not describe the same occasion as Mk 1:40-45 and Lk 5:12-15, note that Mt 8:1-4 happened only a few days before Mt 9:1-8, while Mk 1:40-45 and Lk 5:12-15 were followed by a period of time in which Jesus was in desert places, praying (Mk 1:45, Lk 5:16). Thus, assuming that Mt 9:1-8 corresponds to Mk 2:1-12 and Lk 5:17-26, it follows that Mk 1:40-45 and Lk 5:12-15 preceded Mt 8:1-4 by a considerable amount of time. As for Mk 1:40-45 and Lk 5:12-15, let us consider the word ειπων "saying" found in Lk 5:13 in the Byzantine texts. Understanding the tense of ειπων to indicate that first the Lord spoke and then he touched the leper, Lk 5:13 and Mk 1:41 are different, since Mk 1:41 describes the opposite order. It follows that Mk 1:40-45 and Lk 5:12-15 do not correspond to the same occasion. Since the leper of Lk 5:12 saw Jesus in one of the cities and Jesus would no longer enter a city openly (Mk 1:45) after he performed the miracle of Mk 1:40-44 , it might be that Mk 1:40-44 happened after Lk 5:12-14. While the accounts of Mt 8:1-4, Mk 1:40-45, and Lk 5:12-15 are very similar, it seems obvious that the Lord healed men of leprosy in more than one occasion. When a leper would hear how another leper had been healed, he would likely try to approach Jesus in the same way and with the same words, in the hope that he too would be healed. This could easily explain the similarity of the three passages.

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The Lord heals the servant of a centurion (Mt 8:5-13)

Note that this is not the same occasion as the one in Lk 7:2-10. While there are some similarities between the two accounts and similarities between the circumstances of the two accounts, such coincidences testify to the hand of God the Father in the ministry of Jesus.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The Lord heals the mother-in-law of Peter (Mt 8:14-15)

The Lord had healed Peter's mother-in-law also at the time of Mk 1:29-31 and Lk 4:38-39.

Location: The house of Peter.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The Lord heals many (Mt 8:16-17)

This happened in the evening (Mt 8:16). While the location is not mentioned, it was probably the house of Peter (Mt 8:14). See also the note above on Mk 1:32-34 and Lk 4:40-41.

Time: The evening after the Sabbath.

Index

A scribe speaks of his willingness to follow Jesus (Mt 8:18-22)

Comparing Mt 8:19-22 with Lk 9:57-62, note that the latter happened later in the ministry of the Lord. In Mt 8:19, a scribe spoke to Jesus about his willingness to follow him everywhere; he called Jesus "Teacher". In Lk 9:57, a man spoke to Jesus with almost the same words; he called Jesus "Lord". The Lord answered both with the same words. By means of the word ετερος "another", Mt 8:21 implies that the scribe of Mt 8:19 was a disciple. In Mt 8:21, another disciple asked the Lord for permission to be released until his father would die. In Lk 9:59, a man answered with the same request when Jesus invited him to follow him. Neither of them was granted his request. However, unlike to Mt 8:22, in Lk 9:60 the man was sent where he wanted to go, not to be there until his father would die, but to announce the kingdom of God. Indeed, in view of the words "Follow me" of Lk 9:59, the man had to return and follow Jesus. Given the number of people who were interested in following Jesus, it should not seem surprising that some were in similar circumstances. Now Lk 9:61-62 does not have a parallel in the other Gospels.

Time: The evening after the Sabbath.

Index

The Lord calms a storm (Mt 8:23-27)

There are some indications that this took place during the night. First, the text does not seem to imply that Mt 8:18 and its preceding passage happened on different days. Since Mt 8:16 took place in the evening, it follows that Jesus and his disciples departed during the night. Moreover, Mt 8:24 mentions that Jesus was asleep during the storm. This also is evidence that they were crossing the lake during the night.

A similar occasion took place later, at the time of Mk 4:37-41 and Lk 8:23-25.

Location: Sea of Galilee.

Time: The night after the Sabbath.

Index

Jesus heals two demon-possessed men (Mt 8:28-9:1a)

Note that the account in Mk 5:1-20 and Lk 8:26-39 took place later, in the region of the Gadarenes. See the note below on Mk 5:1-20 and Lk 8:26-39. Since the Lord Jesus was asleep at the time of Mt 8:24, it would appear that he crossed the lake during the night. Therefore, he must have been in the region of the Gergesenes the day after Mt 8:18. As for the location, note the similarity of the Greek forms γεργεσηνων "of the Gergesenes" (Mt 8:28) and γεργεσαιων "of the Girgashites" (Ex 3:8, 17, 13:5, Ne 9:8 in the LXX). It may be that the latter form was an archaic version of the former at the time of the New Testament. Another possibility is that both forms were in use and were equivalent. For example, note that in English certain people can be denoted in more than one way, such Louisianan and Louisianian, Javan and Javanese, etc. So also here, γεργεσηνων and γεργεσαιων appear to be equivalent.

Location: The region of the Gergesenes (Girgashites).

Time: The day after Mt 5-7.

Index

Jesus heals a paralytic (Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, Lk 5:17-26)

Comparing the phrases εις την ιδιαν πολιν "to his own city" (Mt 9:1) and εις καπερναυμ "in Capernaum" (Mk 2:1), it can be seen that Capernaum had become the city of Jesus, the place where he would return from travel. Jesus was no longer residing in Nazareth. Indeed, note that Nazareth is not described as his city of residence, but the city "where he was brought up" (Lk 4:16) and his hometown (Mt 13:54, Mk 6:1, Lk 4:23). Now Mk 2:1 mentions that ηκουσθη οτι εις οικον εστιν "it was heard that he was in a house". In Capernaum, Jesus was apparently staying in the house of Peter (Mk 1:29, 36), since he did not have a house (Mt 8:20) and since he charged the disciples that when they go to a city they should stay in one place and not move from house to house (Mt 10:11, Mk 6:10, Lk 9:4, 10:7). The house where Jesus was staying appears to be denoted by η οικια "the house" in several passages (Mk 9:33, 10:10, Mt 9:28, 13:1, 36, 17:25). Thus, in this chronology, "the house" was usually assumed to be Peter's house. A passage in which "the house" clearly does not refer to Peter's house is Mk 10:10.

Considering the time of this event and the account found in the Gospel of Matthew, there is no indication of a large amount of time between the time Jesus went into the boat (Mt 9:1a) and the time he arrived to his town (Mt 9:1b). Therefore, it would seem reasonable to assume that Mt 9:1b-8 took place on the day following Mt 8:28-34.

Location: Likely, Peter's house.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 5-7.

Index  Sequence

Jesus calls Levi the tax collector (Lk 5:27)

Lk 5:27 states that εξηλθεν και εθεασατο τελωνην "he went out and saw a tax collector". Understanding a short amount of time between "he went out" and "he saw", Lk 5:27 happened before Mk 2:13 and likely also before Mt 9:9. This would imply that Jesus met Levi twice: once on his way to the Sea of Galilee (Mk 2:13), and once on his way back to the town (Mk 2:14). Then, since Jesus called Levi also at the time of Mk 2:14, it can be concluded that Levi did not follow Jesus right away after he was called in Lk 5:27. Therefore, there is some time between Lk 5:27 and Lk 5:28, perhaps a few hours. This is consistent with the aorist tense of the form καταλιπων that appears in καταλιπων απαντα αναστας ηκολουθησεν αυτω "after he left everything, he got up and followed him" (Lk 5:28). It implies that Levi had some things to finish before he could follow Jesus. Note that in this event sequence Levi and Matthew the apostle are two different persons; see the note below on Mt 9:9 for a discussion of this topic.

Location: On the way to the Sea of Galilee.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 5-7.

Index  Sequence

Jesus calls Matthew the tax collector (Mt 9:9)

The word εκειθεν "from there" implies that this took place when Jesus was going from the house to the Sea of Galilee (Mk 2:13), not when he was returning from the sea to the town. Thus, Mt 9:9 took place before Mk 2:13. Apart from Mt 9:9, the only New Testament passages in which the name ματθαιος "Matthew" is found are the passages listing the names of the apostles: Mt 10:2-4, Mk 3:16-19, Lk 6:14-16, and Ac 1:13. Since Matthew of Mt 9:9 was sitting at the tax booth and Mt 10:3 states that "Matthew the tax collector" was one of the apostles of the Lord, it can be concluded that Mt 9:9 and Mt 10:3 refer to the same person. By comparing Mt 9:9-17 with Mk 2:14-22 and Lk 5:27-39, it might appear that Levi the tax collector and Matthew are the same person. However, while the Gospels of Mark and Luke mention Levi in Mk 2:14 and Lk 5:27, they use the name "Matthew", not "Levi", when listing the names of the apostles in Mk 3:16-19 and Lk 6:14-16; see also Ac 1:13. Thus, both Levi and Matthew are mentioned in the Gospels of Mark and Luke, but without any indication that they are the same person. Given the perfection of God's word, it seems quite unlikely that someone who would read about Matthew and Levi in the Gospel of Mark, or the Gospel of Luke, would be unable to see that the two are one and the same person without reading also the Gospel of Matthew and comparing the Gospel of Matthew to the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke. Therefore, it can be concluded that Matthew and Levi are actually two different persons.

Location: On the way to the Sea of Galilee.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 5-7.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches the crowds (Mk 2:13)

Location: Near the Sea of Galilee.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 5-7.

Index  Sequence

Jesus calls Levi the tax collector (Mk 2:14, Lk 5:28)

See the note above on Lk 5:27.

Location: On the way back to the city.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 5-7.

Index  Sequence

Jesus and his disciples eat with tax collectors and sinners (Mk 2:15, Lk 5:29)

Within a passage about Jesus, the ending of Mk 2:14 shows how Levi responded to him: και αναστας ηκολουθησεν αυτω "and having got up, he followed him". Understanding the next sentence in Mk 2:15 to refer again to Jesus, the statement και εγενετο εν τω κατακεισθαι αυτον εν τη οικια αυτου "And it happened as he was reclining in his house" speaks about Jesus reclining in the house of Levi. Since the passage is about Jesus, "he" must refer to him. Since the previous verse, Mk 2:14, mentions only Jesus interacting with Levi, "his" must refer to Levi. We could also reason as follows. The alternative that "his" refers to Jesus does not fit well with the observation that the place where Jesus was living seems to be denoted elsewhere by η οικια "the house", without any pronoun; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26. Moreover, the alternative that both "he" and "his" refer to Levi would seem somewhat unlikely because it would imply that the text speaks about guests reclining at the table with Jesus before mentioning that Jesus was there. Thus, we can conclude that the verse speaks about Jesus reclining at the table with other guests in the house of Levi. Then, Mk 2:15 corresponds to Lk 5:29.

Location: Levi's house.

Index  Sequence

The scribes and the Pharisees object that the disciples eat with tax collectors and sinners and do not fast (Lk 5:30-39)

There are several indications that Lk 5:30-39 does not describe the same occasion as Mt 9:11-17 and Mk 2:16-22. In Lk 5:33, the Pharisees appear to reply to Jesus with a question about fasting, while in Mt 9:14 and Mk 2:18 the disciples of John and of the Pharisees came to Jesus and asked him about fasting. It could be added also that in Mt 9:13 the Pharisees were about to leave (note the word πορευθεντες "going"); so they were not about to stay for one more question. Moreover, the objection expressed in Lk 5:30 is not exactly the same as in Mt 9:11 and Mk 2:16. Finally, there are also differences between Lk 5:34, 36 on one side, and Mt 9:15, 16 and Mk 2:19, 21 on the other side.

Index  Sequence

Jesus and his disciples eat with tax collectors and sinners (Mt 9:10)

Within a passage about Jesus, Mt 9:9 ends with a clause whose subject is Matthew: και αναστας ηκολουθησεν αυτω "and having got up, he followed him". Next, Mt 9:10 begins with και εγενετο αυτου ανακειμενου εν τη οικια "And it happened, while he was reclining in the house". Since the passage is about Jesus, "he" appears to be Jesus. Moreover, "the house" seems to refer to the place where Jesus was living. In the context of Mt 9, τη οικια "the house" in Mt 9:10 could be associated with την οικιαν πετρου "the house of Peter" that was mentioned earlier in Mt 8:14. In fact, there are several verses in which "the house" appears to refers to the place where Jesus was living; see the note above on Mk 2:15 and Lk 5:29.

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

The scribes and the Pharisees object that Jesus eats with sinners (Mt 9:11-13, Mk 2:16-17)

The scribes and the Pharisees had a similar objection in Lk 5:30. So there were objections after he ate in Levi's house, and again after he ate with tax collectors in Mt 9:10. However, those who objected in Mt 9:11 and Mk 2:16 do not have to be the same as those who had objected earlier in Lk 5:30, 33.

Index  Sequence

The disciples of John ask Jesus why his disciples were not fasting (Mt 9:14-17, Mk 2:18-22)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 9:14 indicates that Mt 9:14 took place shortly after Mt 9:13. It is possible that the disciples of John had been instigated by the Pharisees to ask this question. It was assumed here that Lk 5:33-39, which is a passage in which the Pharisees ask the same question, happened earlier. Mk 2:18 mentions that the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees were fasting, and that they came to Jesus. Clearly, not every disciple of John and of the Pharisees came, but only some. Therefore, the statement of Mk 2:18 that they came indicates that out of this group of fasting people some came to Jesus to ask him about fasting. Since Mt 9:14 mentions only disciples of John, it would appear that only some of the disciples of John came.

Index  Sequence

A ruler asks Jesus to raise his daughter who had just died (Mt 9:18-19)

A similar event is recorded in Mk 5:22-24 and Lk 8:41-42. It differs from Mt 9:18-19 in that the daughter of the ruler was still alive when he went to see Jesus. When considering also the subsequent events, other differences can be noticed. These differences show clearly that the events in Mt 9:18-26 are not the same as the events of Mk 5:22-43 and Lk 8:41-56, which took place later. Nonetheless, there are also many striking similarities. Since God alone can control the circumstances of man, these similarities are testifying to the hand of God and to the fact that God was directing the ministry of Jesus.

As mentioned in Mt 9:18, Jesus was speaking on the topics of Mt 9:14-17 when the ruler came to him.

Index

A woman suffering from a hemorrhage is healed (Mt 9:20-22)

See the note above on Mt 9:18-19. The statement η πιστις σου σεσωκεν σε "Thy faith hath saved thee" (Mt 9:22) appears in the same form in seven passages, in Mt 9:22, Mk 5:34, Mk 10:52, Lk 7:50, Lk 8:48, Lk 17:19, and Lk 18:42. This emphasizes that salvation is by faith. In the context of a physical healing, the verb ιαομαι "to cure" or the verb θεραπευω "to cure" could be used. The fact that the verb σωζω "to save" was used instead in "Thy faith hath saved thee" is quite significant.

Location: On the way to the house of the ruler.

Index

Jesus brings back to life the daughter of the ruler (Mt 9:23-26)

See the note above on Mt 9:18-19.

Location: In the house of the ruler.

Index

Jesus heals two blind men (Mt 9:27-31)

As mentioned in Mt 9:28, this happened when he came into the house. In the context, this appears to be Peter's house; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26.

Location: Peter's house.

Index

Jesus heals a mute man (Mt 9:32-34)

Location: Peter's house.

Index

Jesus goes through all the cities and villages (Mt 9:35)

Index

The Pharisees claim that the disciples break the Sabbath law (Mk 2:23-28, Lk 6:1-5)

As the disciples were eating on a Sabbath, the Pharisees objected when they noticed them plucking and rubbing the heads of grain in their hands. The Pharisees must have had this objection on more than one occasion. However, it was assumed here that Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5 correspond to the same occasion. Moreover, assuming the accounts of the Gospels in chronological order, it seems clear that Mt 12:1-8 happened at some other time. Even if chronological order is not assumed, it is possible to see that Mt 12:1-14 does not correspond to Mk 2:23-3:6 and Lk 6:1-11, since Mt 12:1-8 and Mt 12:10-14 took place on the same day, while the Sabbath of Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5 is not the same as the Sabbath of Mk 3:1-6 and Lk 6:6-11. Thus, it was assumed here that the occasion of Mt 12:1-8 is not the same as the occasion of Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5. Since the objection of the Pharisees in Mt 12:1-8 was the same as in Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5, it should not seem surprising that the Lord answered similarly in both occasions.

Considering the time of this event, the phrase σαββατω δευτεροπρωτω (Lk 6:1) was understood as denoting the second Sabbath after the Passover Feast. As for the location, it appears that Jesus was on his way to a synagogue when he was going through the grain fields. Then, it may be that Mk 2:24-28 and Lk 6:3-5 took place inside the synagogue. Some indications that Jesus was on his way to the synagogue are as follows. First, in Mt 12:1-14, which is a similar passage that happened at another time, after the Lord left the grain fields he entered a synagogue (Mt 12:9). Second, both Mk 3:1 and Lk 6:6 appear to imply that there was a synagogue in the context of Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5. Indeed, Mk 3:1 states εισηλθεν παλιν εις την συναγωγην "he entered again into the synagogue". Since the closest previous reference to a specific synagogue is far back in Mk 1:29, the possibility that Mk 2:23-28 implies a synagogue would seem quite likely. Furthermore, considering the Byzantine text, Lk 6:6 states εγενετο δε και εν ετερω σαββατω εισελθειν αυτον εις την συναγωγην "it came to pass also in another Sabbath that he entered the synagogue". Again, since the closest previous reference to a specific synagogue is far back in Lk 4:38, the possibility that Lk 6:1-5 implies a synagogue would seem quite likely.

Following the Passover of Lk 6:1, there are only two other Passovers mentioned in the Gospels: the Passover of Jn 6:2 and the Passover when Jesus died. Assuming that Jesus was crucified in AD 33, it follows that the year of this event is AD 31.

Time: The 2nd Sabbath after the Passover Feast of AD 31.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals a man with a withered hand (Mk 3:1-6, Lk 6:6-11)

Mk 3:1-6 and Lk 6:6-11 are interpreted here as taking place at a different time than Mt 12:10-14. It seems very reasonable to assume that there was more than one man with a withered hand in that area. Nonetheless, the fact that Jesus performed similar miracles in very similar circumstances could be taken as a mark of God's hand, a testimony that God the Father was with Jesus and was orchestrating the events of his ministry. See also the note above on Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5.

Location: In a synagogue.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index  Sequence

Large crowds follow Jesus (Mk 3:7-12)

Index  Sequence

The Lord goes on a mountain to pray (Mk 3:13a, Lk 6:12)

Location: Near Capernaum.

Index  Sequence

The Lord chooses the twelve apostles (Mk 3:13b-19a, Lk 6:13-16)

This occasion appears to correspond to the time of Lk 6:17-19; see the note below on Mt 10:1-42. Then, since the Lord was in Capernaum at the time of Lk 7:1-10, it follows that the location of this passage was relatively close to Capernaum. The names of the twelve appear also in Mt 10:2-4. The information provided about the twelve apostles is summarized in the following table. Note that many of the apostles were known by more than one name. It could be noticed also that Mt 10:2-4 and Lk 6:14-16 list the names of the apostles in groups of two. It may be that the Lord sent the disciples in these groups of two in Mk 6:7-13. Thus, by comparing the groups of two of Mk 3:16-19 with the groups of two of Lk 6:14-16, it is possible to identify Simon the Zealot with Thaddaeus, and Judas the son of James with Simon the Canaanite. Listed also are the names mentioned in Ac 1:13, 16. The following table lists the names in order of Mt 10:2-4.

Mt 10:2-4

Mk 3:16-19

Lk 6:14-16

Ac 1:13, 16

σιμων ο λεγομενος πετρος "Simon, the one called Peter"

επεθηκεν τω σιμωνι ονομα πετρον "to Simon he gave the name Peter"

σιμωνα ον και ωνομασεν πετρον "Simon, whom he named Peter"

πετρος "Peter"

ανδρεας ο αδελφος αυτου "Andrew his brother"

ανδρεαν "Andrew"

ανδρεαν τον αδελφον αυτου "Andrew his brother"

ανδρεας "Andrew"

ιακωβος ο του ζεβεδαιου "James the son of Zebedee"

ιακωβον τον του ζεβεδαιου "James the son of Zebedee"

ιακωβον "James"

ιακωβος "James"

ιωαννης ο αδελφος αυτου "John his brother"

ιωαννην τον αδελφον του ιακωβου και επεθηκεν αυτοις ονοματα βοανεργες ο εστιν υιοι βροντης "John the brother of James. And he gave them the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder."

ιωαννην "John"

ιωαννης "John"

φιλιππος "Philip"

φιλιππον "Philip"

φιλιππον "Philip"

φιλιππος "Philip"

βαρθολομαιος "Bartholomew"

βαρθολομαιον "Bartholomew"

βαρθολομαιον "Bartholomew"

βαρθολομαιος "Bartholomew"

θωμας "Thomas"

θωμαν "Thomas"

θωμαν "Thomas"

θωμας "Thomas"

ματθαιος ο τελωνης "Matthew the tax collector"

ματθαιον "Matthew"

ματθαιον "Matthew"

ματθαιος "Matthew"

ιακωβος ο του αλφαιου "James the son of Alphaeus"

ιακωβον τον του αλφαιου "James the son of Alphaeus"

ιακωβον τον του αλφαιου "James the son of Alphaeus"

ιακωβος αλφαιου "James the son of Alphaeus"

λεββαιος ο επικληθεις θαδδαιος "Lebbaeus, who was called Thaddaeus"

θαδδαιον "Thaddaeus"

σιμωνα τον καλουμενον ζηλωτην "Simon who was called the Zealot"

σιμων ο ζηλωτης "Simon the Zealot"

σιμων ο κανανιτης "Simon the Canaanite"

σιμωνα τον κανανιτην "Simon the Canaanite"

ιουδαν ιακωβου "Judas the son of James"

ιουδας ιακωβου "Judas the son of James"

ιουδας ισκαριωτης ο και παραδους αυτον "Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him"

ιουδαν ισκαριωτην ος και παρεδωκεν αυτον "Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him"

ιουδαν ισκαριωτην ος και εγενετο προδοτης "Judas Iscariot, who also became a traitor"

περι ιουδα του γενομενου οδηγου τοις συλλαβουσιν τον ιησουν "concerning Judas, the one who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus"

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: After one night of prayer (Lk 6:12).

Index  Sequence

The Lord has compassion on the crowds (Mt 9:36-38)

As could be understood also from other passages (Mt 14:14, 15:32), the Lord was moved with compassion when he saw the crowds. Nonetheless, the word τοτε "then" in Mt 9:37 indicates a specific occasion in which the Lord had compassion on the crowds. For the time of this passage, see the note below on Mt 10:1-42.

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: After one night of prayer (Lk 6:12).

Index

Jesus descends to a level place (Lk 6:17-19)

Jesus had been praying on a mountain (Lk 6:12, Mk 3:13). After he chose the twelve apostles, he descended to a level place.

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: After one night of prayer (Lk 6:12).

Index

A sermon (Lk 6:20-49)

As indicated in Lk 6:20, 7:1, the Lord spoke these words to his disciples in the hearing of the people.

Location: Near Capernaum.

Time: After one night of prayer (Lk 6:12).

Index

Jesus heals the servant of a centurion (Lk 7:1-10)

Just as the Lord repeated some of the topics of Mt 5-7 in Lk 6:17-49, so also he repeated the miracle of Mt 8:5-13 in this passage. By doing this, the Lord has emphasized that his word brings healing and life.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: After one night of prayer (Lk 6:12).

Index

The Lord commissions the twelve apostles (Mt 10:1-42)

This is the passage in which the Gospel of Matthew introduces the twelve apostles. Thus, it must have taken place after the Lord had appointed them. However, there are some indications that it took place shortly after he appointed the apostles. As we read in Mk 3:14-15, the Lord appointed the twelve that they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach and to have authority to heal diseases and cast out demons. Then, Mt 10:1 could be associated with Mk 3:15, and Mt 10:5-42 with Mk 3:14. Moreover, the large crowd mentioned in Mt 9:36-38 could be associated with the crowd of Lk 6:17-18. It could be noticed also that in Mt 10:5-42 the Lord spoke not only about the near future, but also about events that were to take place after his death and resurrection. So Mt 10 is not about the instructions that the Lord gave the twelve before sending them out on a specific mission, but about general instructions for all their future assignments. Understanding then Mt 10:1-42 to refer to the commissioning of the twelve, since the Lord departed to preach in other cities after he instructed them (Mt 11:1), it must be that Mt 10:1-42 took place in Capernaum or its vicinity. Given that the Lord was in Capernaum at the time of Lk 7:1-10 and that he went to Nain on the following day (Lk 7:11), understanding Lk 7:1-10 and Lk 6:17-49 to be on the same day, it follows that Mt 10:1-42 took place on the same day as Lk 7:11, that is, the day after Lk 7:1-10. Thus, the instructions of Lk 6:20-49 were given one day before Mt 10:1-42.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: The day after Lk 7:1-10.

Index

The Lord departs to preach and to teach in the cities of the apostles (Mt 11:1)

Mt 11:1 states explicitly that the Lord departed when he had finished instructing the apostles. It follows that Jesus departed on the day of Mt 10:1-42, probably in the morning.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: The day after Lk 7:1-10.

Index

Jesus resurrects the son of a widow (Lk 7:11-17)

The phrase εν τη εξης "the following day" in Lk 7:11 indicates the time of this passage. This phrase appears in the received text. Other Greek texts have εν τω εξης, which may not imply the following day.

Location: Nain.

Time: The day after Lk 7:1-10.

Index

John the Baptist sends two of his disciples to Jesus (Mt 11:2, Lk 7:18-19)

Index  Sequence

The Lord speaks to John's disciples (Mt 11:3-6, Lk 7:20-23)

Index  Sequence

The Lord speaks to the crowds about John the Baptist (Mt 11:7-15, Lk 7:24-30)

Index  Sequence

The unbelieving generation (Mt 11:16-19, Lk 7:31-35)

Note that in the context of Mt 11, it would seem unnatural to assume that Mt 11:16-19 and Mt 11:7-15 took place at different times. Rather, Mt 11:16-19 must have followed after Mt 11:7-15 during the same occasion.

Index  Sequence

Unrepentant cities (Mt 11:20-24)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 11:20 indicates that this event followed closely in time the previous passage.

Index

"Come to me all ye that labor and are heavy laden ..." (Mt 11:25-30)

In Mt 11:25, the phrase εν εκεινω τω καιρω "in that season", that is, "at that time" is interpreted here as referring to a time interval that included several days; see the note below on Mt 12:1-8. By quoting words that the Lord must have spoken several days after the previous passage, the text addresses in more detail the topic of the previous verses. Note that the Lord spoke Mt 11:25-27 also in Lk 10:21-22. One possibility would be that Mt 11:25-30 and Lk 10:21-22 correspond to the same occasion. However, assuming the events in Matthew in chronological order, it must be that Mt 11:25-30 and Lk 10:21-22 were spoken at different times. This conclusion is also supported by some small differences between Mt 11:27 and Lk 10:22.

Index

The Pharisees claim that the disciples break the Sabbath law (Mt 12:1-8)

A similar event occurred earlier in the ministry of the Lord; see the note above on Mk 2:23-28 and Lk 6:1-5. In Mt 12:1, the phrase εν εκεινω τω καιρω "in that season", that is, "at that time" does not seem to imply that Mt 12:1 happened immediately after the preceding verse. Rather, several days may be in between. We could arrive to this conclusion by examining the context of Mt 14:1, since Mt 14:1 also uses the phrase εν εκεινω τω καιρω. Indeed, note that Mk 6:6-13 appears to take place between Mt 13:58 and Mt 14:1.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

Jesus heals a man with a withered hand (Mt 12:9-14)

A similar event occurred earlier in the ministry of the Lord; see the note above on Mk 3:1-6 and Lk 6:6-11.

Location: In a synagogue.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

Jesus withdraws and heals the sick (Mt 12:15-21)

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

Jesus heals a blind and mute man (Mt 12:22-23)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 12:22 indicates that this took place at the time of Mt 12:15-21.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The Pharisees think that the miracles of Jesus are not from God (Mt 12:24)

Mt 11:23 shows how the crowds responded to the miracles of Jesus, while Mt 11:24 shows how the Pharisees responded. This was not the first time the Pharisees were saying that Jesus casts out demons by the ruler of demons. They were saying it also earlier, in Mt 9:34. Since Mt 12:25 uses the word ενθυμησις "thought" in reference to this opinion of the Pharisees, it would appear that they were not talking much about it to others; at this point, they were talking about it among themselves.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

Jesus is anointed by a sinful woman (Lk 7:36-50)

In view of Jn 11:2, we could identify the woman with Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus. Then, we could infer that Jesus was in Judea at this time. Since the name of the Pharisee was Simon (Lk 7:40, 43), it may be that Jesus was in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper (Mt 26:6). The Lord was also anointed in two other occasions; see the note below on Jn 12:2-8. See also the note above on Mt 9:20-22 about the statement η πιστις σου σεσωκεν σε "Thy faith hath saved thee" (Lk 7:50).

Location: In the house of Simon, a Pharisee, likely in Bethany.

Index

Jesus travels through cities and villages proclaiming the good news (Lk 8:1-3)

The word καθεξης of Lk 8:1 is commonly translated "afterwards". It implies that Lk 8:1 followed soon after the previous passage, that no major events took place in between. Note that the twelve are mentioned in this passage, so Mk 3:14-19 must have taken place before this time. In view of Mt 11:1, it would appear that Jesus was resuming his travel to teach and preach in the cities of Israel. Now the detail about the seven demons is mentioned in both Lk 8:2 and Mk 16:9.

Index

Members of the family of Jesus depart to lay hold of him (Mk 3:19b-21)

After Jesus was thrust out of Nazareth (Lk 4:29-30), he probably was out of touch with his family for a while. He likely avoided Nazareth due to the hostility of its people. Thus, he could only see his family outside of Nazareth, if they visited him. His family eventually visited him (Mt 12:46-50, Mk 3:31-35), and after some time he did go again to Nazareth (Mt 13:54, Mk 6:1). However, before they came to him, they could hear about him from the people. They must have heard what the Pharisees and the people of Nazareth were saying, and probably they were unwilling to say any good things about him. At some point, his family was deceived into thinking that they needed to go and lay hold of him, as could be seen in Mk 3:21 and Mk 3:31. (That Mk 3:21 is about the family of Jesus and not about relatives or friends will be shown below.) At the time of Mk 3:21, Mary and the brothers of Jesus were in Capernaum or near it. Having heard what the crowds also heard, that Jesus is in the house (Mk 3:19-20), they went there to lay hold of him. They arrived at the time of Mk 3:31.

To see that Mk 3:21 refers to the family of Jesus, several considerations could be made. Clearly, Mk 3:21 refers to some who were not located near Jesus, but had to depart from where they were in order to lay hold of him. They must have had some authority to lay hold of him. They are denoted by the phrase οι παρ αυτου, for which a word-for-word translation would be "those from him". The Greek preposition παρα "from" suggests persons that in some sense were close to him. Since Mk 3:31 follows shortly after Mk 3:21, Mary and the brothers of Jesus in Mk 3:31 are naturally associated with the persons mentioned in Mk 3:21: their departure is mentioned in Mk 3:21 and their arrival in Mk 3:31. Additional support for interpreting the Greek phrase οι παρ αυτου "those from him" as meaning "his family" is found by examining related Greek phrases in the New Testament and the Septuagint. Evidence that the preposition παρα "from" in "those from him" indicates persons that could also be described as "those who were his" can be seen in passages such as the following. η παρ εμου διαθηκη in Ro 11:27 corresponds to בריתי "my covenant" in Is 59:12. In the LXX, την ραβδον την παρα του θεου translates מטה האלהים "the staff of God" in Ex 4:20; την σωτηριαν την παρα του θεου corresponds to ישועת יהוה "the LORD's salvation" in Ex 14:13 and ישועת אלהינו "the salvation of our God" in Is 52:10; της παρ υμων ισχυος corresponds to מכחכם "from your strength" in Job 6:22; την παρα σου εκδικησιν translates נקמתך "thy vengeance" in Jer 11:20, 20:12. There are other examples as well. The phrases that are most related to οι παρ αυτου "those from him" appear to be τον παρ αυτου in the LXX translation of 1Ki 20:20, and οι παρ αυτης in Pr 31:21. τον παρ αυτου translates אישו "his opponent" in ויכו איש אישו "and everyone struck down his opponent" in 1Ki 20:20. οι παρ αυτης in Pr 31:21 translates ביתה "her house", that is, "her family". Without question, the phrase of Pr 31:21 is far more relevant to Mk 3:21 than 1Ki 20:20, and so bears evidence that οι παρ αυτου "his own" should be interpreted "his family".

See also the note below on Lk 8:19-21.

Location: Capernaum.

Index  Sequence

The scribes claim that the miracles of Jesus are not from God (Mk 3:22)

In this chronology, two earlier occasions in which the Pharisees expressed the same view are in Mt 9:34 and Mt 12:24. Since Mk 3:22 mentions scribes from Jerusalem, we could understand that Jesus had been recently in Judea; see the note above on Lk 7:36-50.

Location: Capernaum.

Index  Sequence

Jesus shows that his miracles are from God (Mt 12:25-33, Mk 3:23-30)

The Lord spoke on this topic again in Lk 11:15-26. Understanding the location in this passage to be the same as at the beginning of Mt 13:1, since Mt 13:1 denotes the location as της οικιας "the house", we can infer that Jesus was in Peter's house; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26..

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

"How can ye, being evil, speak good things?" (Mt 12:34-37)

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

The scribes and the Pharisees ask for a sign (Mt 12:38-45)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 12:38 was taken as an indication that this passage took place at the time of Mt 12:25-37. The Lord has used similar words in Lk 11:31-32 when answering the request for a sign.

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

The mother and the brothers of Jesus come to him (Mt 12:46-50, Mk 3:31-35)

See the note above on Mk 3:19b-21 and the note below on Lk 8:19-21. At the time of Mk 3:23, the scribes were able to come to Jesus in spite of the crowd. However, when Mary and the brothers of Jesus came, they did not enter in. They were either unwilling to enter (perhaps they preferred to meet him outside), or a larger crowd had gathered in the meanwhile. If they were still planning to lay hold of him, this would have been probably easier to do outside than inside. When they came to Jesus again later, the crowd was the reason they could not enter inside (Lk 8:19).

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

The parable of the sower (Mt 13:1-9, Mk 4:1-9, Lk 8:4-8)

As mentioned in Mt 13:1, this passage took place on the same day as Mt 12:46-50.

Location: By the Sea of Galilee.

Index  Sequence

Jesus explains the parable to his disciples (Mt 13:10-23, Mk 4:10-20, Lk 8:9-15)

As mentioned in Mk 4:10, this happened when Jesus was alone with his disciples.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches the disciples (Mk 4:21-25, Lk 8:16-18)

The word ελεγεν "he was saying" at the beginning of Mk 4:21 could indicate that Mk 4:21 was not spoken immediately after Mk 4:20. However, since Lk 8:15 and Lk 8:16 are separated only by the conjunction δε "but" found at the beginning of Lk 8:16, it would appear that there was not much time between Lk 8:15 and Lk 8:16.

Index  Sequence

The mother and the brothers of Jesus come to him (Lk 8:19-21)

The mother of Jesus must have visited him in more than one occasion. By comparing carefully Lk 8:19-21 with the accounts of Mt 12:46-50 and Mk 3:31-35, it is apparent that Lk 8:19-21 describes a different occasion. The similarity of the three accounts is explained by the fact that the visits took place under similar circumstances. As for differences, it can be noticed that Lk 8:21 is considerably different from Mt 12:50 and Mk 3:35. Moreover, the Lord spoke the parable of the sower before Lk 8:18-21, but after Mt 12:46-50 and Mk 3:31-35. Since the text does not require a big time interval between Lk 8:18 and Lk 8:19, it is possible that Lk 8:19-21 took place on the same day as Mt 12:46-50 and Mk 3:31-35. Perhaps the mother and the brothers of Jesus visited him twice on the same day: first in the morning (Mt 12:46-50, Mk 3:31-35), and then once again in the evening (Lk 8:19-21). Perhaps they had arrived to Capernaum late on the preceding day, and they intended to depart back to Nazareth early the following day. At the time of this passage, Jesus was in a house and a crowd was outside (Lk 8:19-20). Since Lk 8:22 begins with και εγενετο εν μια των ημερων "and it happened on one day", it is clear that there is a number of days between Lk 8:19-21 and Lk 8:22. See also the note above on Mk 3:19b-21.

Location: At a house.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches the crowds in parables (Mt 13:24-35, Mk 4:26-34)

Mt 13:34-36 shows that Jesus spoke these parables to the crowds. This probably took place several days after Mt 13:23. To see this, we could note first that Mt 13:23 took place on the day when Jesus spoke the parable of the sower, which was apparently on the same day as Lk 8:21. Understanding that Mt 13:24-35 took place on the same day as Mt 13:53, since Mt 13:53 corresponds to Lk 8:22, the time between Mt 13:23 and Mt 13:24 corresponds roughly to the time between Lk 8:21 and Lk 8:22. As for Lk 8:22, the phrase και εγενετο εν μια των ημερων "and it happened on one day" implies that Lk 8:21 must have taken place a number of days before Lk 8:22. Indeed, if Lk 8:22 took place one or two days after Lk 8:21, the text would have been "and it happened on the next day," or "and it happened on the third day". As for Mk 4:26-32, the introductory words of Mk 4:26 are και ελεγεν "and he was saying", indicating that Mk 4:26 did not follow immediately after Mk 4:25. Moreover, notable is the absence of αυτοις "to them" in και ελεγεν "and he was saying". In the context of the previous verses, και ελεγεν αυτοις "and he was saying to them" could have implied that Jesus was still speaking to his disciples. As it is, the text suggests that Jesus had a different audience here; Mk 4:33-34 confirms that he was speaking to the crowds and his disciples.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches the disciples (Mt 13:36-52)

This passage took place after Jesus left the crowds (Mt 13:36). Additionally, the word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 13:36 indicates that the passage took place shortly after Mt 13:24-35. Note that Mt 13:51-52 fits well the interpretation that Mt 13:36-52 is about Jesus teaching his disciples. Now Mt 13:36 mentions that he entered την οικιαν "the house", which refers to Peter's house; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26..

Location: Peter's house.

Index

Jesus and his disciples depart to the other side of the lake (Mt 13:53, Mk 4:35-36, Lk 8:22)

As mentioned in Mk 4:35, this took place on the same day as the previous passage. While Jesus left the crowds in Mt 13:36, some must have followed him to the house. By the time he departed, there was again a crowd (Mk 4:36).

Location: Peter's house.

Index  Sequence

Jesus calms a storm (Mk 4:37-41, Lk 8:23-25)

In Mt 8:23-27, the Gospel of Matthew presents a similar event that took place earlier.

Location: Sea of Galilee.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals a demon-possessed man (Mk 5:1-20, Lk 8:26-39)

In Mt 8:28-34, the Gospel of Matthew presents a similar event that took place earlier. Since Jesus and his disciples left the other side late during the day (Mk 4:35), it would appear that they slept in the boat and went out of the boat on the following day. Both Mk 5:1 and Lk 8:26 mention that this took place in the region of the Gadarenes.

Location: The region of the Gadarenes.

Time: The day after Mk 4:35.

Index  Sequence

The Lord returns to the other side of the lake (Mk 5:21, Lk 8:40)

Index  Sequence

A woman is healed and Jairus' daughter is raised from the dead. (Mk 5:22-43, Lk 8:41-56)

Note that similar events took place earlier in the ministry of the Lord, as mentioned in Mt 9:18-26. See the note above on Mt 9:18-19. See also the note above on Mt 9:20-22 about the statement η πιστις σου σεσωκεν σε "Thy faith hath saved thee" (Mk 5:34, Lk 8:48).

Index  Sequence

Jesus goes to his hometown (Mt 13:54-58, Mk 6:1-6a)

An earlier visit to Nazareth is described in Lk 4:16-30.

Location: Nazareth.

Index  Sequence

Jesus goes about the villages teaching (Mk 6:6b)

Index  Sequence

The Lord sends out the twelve apostles (Mk 6:7-13, Lk 9:1-6)

This occasion should not be confused with Mt 10:1-11:1, when the Lord instructed and empowered the apostles for their future ministry. Note that Mt 10:17-23 contains instructions for circumstances that were not in the near future of that time. Unlike to Mk 6:12 and Lk 9:6, Mt 11:1 does not mention the disciples departing to preach. As for the groups of two, see the note above on Mk 3:13b-19a and Lk 6:13-16.

Index  Sequence

The death of John the Baptist. Herod hears about Jesus. (Mt 14:1-12a, Mk 6:14-29, Lk 9:7-9)

The following remarks could be made about the time of these events. Herod heard about Jesus in the context of the ministry of the twelve (Mk 6:12-14, Lk 9:6-7). Therefore, he must have heard after Jesus had sent out the twelve. Moreover, Herod heard after he had killed John the Baptist (Mt 14:1-2), but before Jesus was told about John's death (Mt 14:12). Now, the assignment of the twelve in Mk 6:7-13 and Lk 9:1-6 must have taken a considerable amount of time, for they went through the villages "preaching the gospel and healing everywhere" (Lk 9:6). Note also that the instructions of the Lord in Mk 6:10 and Lk 9:4 indicate that they had to spend several days in each village. By comparing Mt 14:12-13 and Mk 6:30-32, we could conclude that the disciples of John came to Jesus about the time when his disciples returned. Thus, assuming not many days between the death of John the Baptist and the time when Jesus was told about it, the time when Jesus sent out the twelve must have preceded the death of John the Baptist (Mk 6:7-13, Lk 9:1-6).

Index  Sequence

The works of the Son. Testimonies on his behalf. (Jn 5:17-47)

As indicated in Jn 6:1, the feeding of the 5000 took place sometime after Jesus spoke these words. While Jn 5:17-18 did not have to take place at the same time as Jn 5:19-47, it was assumed here that they took place about the same time. Note that Jesus does not say in Jn 5:35 that John the Baptist is a light, but that he was a light. The past tense would imply that John the Baptist was dead by the time of this passage. Even before being announced, Jesus must have been aware in his spirit that John had died. Thus, it is not necessary to place this passage after the time when the disciples of John announced Jesus about the death of John the Baptist. In the context of Jn 5, this passage is spoken to the Jews who opposed Jesus. Note that the Jews are mentioned explicitly later in Jn 6:41, 52. It must be that some people from Judea had come to Jesus and he was speaking to them (cf. Lk 5:17). In view of Jn 6:1, Jesus must have been in Tiberias or close to it.

Location: Tiberias or its vicinity.

Index

Jesus and the apostles sail to the area of Bethsaida (Mt 14:12b-13, Mk 6:30-33, Lk 9:10-11a, Jn 6:1-2)

As indicated in Jn 6:4, at the time of these events the Passover was near. Since this is the last Passover mentioned in the Gospels that precedes the Passover Feast when Jesus died, assuming the year AD 33 for the crucifixion, the year AD 32 is obtained for the Passover of this passage.

Time: When the Passover of AD 32 was near.

Index  Sequence

The Lord heals the sick and teaches the people (Mt 14:14, Mk 6:34, Lk 9:11)

Location: The area of Bethsaida.

Time: When the Passover of AD 32 was near.

Index  Sequence

The Lord goes up on the mountain (Jn 6:3-4)

Location: The area of Bethsaida.

Time: When the Passover of AD 32 was near.

Index  Sequence

Jesus feeds 5000 (Mt 14:15-21, Mk 6:35-44, Lk 9:12-17, Jn 6:5-13)

Location: The area of Bethsaida.

Time: When the Passover of AD 32 was near.

Index  Sequence

The Lord sends the disciples to the other side, dismisses the crowd, and goes up on the mountain to pray (Mt 14:22-23, Mk 6:45-47, Jn 6:14-17a)

As mentioned in Mk 6:45, the Lord sent the disciples to Bethsaida. However, probably due to the direction of the wind, they decided to go to Capernaum instead (Jn 6:17).

Location: The area of Bethsaida.

Time: When the Passover of AD 32 was near.

Index  Sequence

Jesus walks on water (Mt 14:24-33, Mk 6:48-52, Jn 6:17b-21)

Location: Sea of Galilee.

Time: The fourth watch of the night.

Index  Sequence

The Lord arrives to the land of Gennesaret (Mt 14:34-35a, Mk 6:53-54)

It probably took several days to bring all the sick of that region to Jesus. This could also be concluded from οπου ηκουον οτι εκει εστιν "wherever they heard that he is" in Mk 6:55, and also from Mk 6:56. It follows that Jn 6:22-71 took place during the period of time when many were seeking Jesus and bringing the sick to him.

Location: The land of Gennesaret.

Time: The day after the feeding of the 5000.

Index  Sequence

The crowd on the other side of the lake returns (Jn 6:22-24)

Time: The day after the feeding of the 5000.

Index

Jesus teaches in the synagogue of Capernaum (Jn 6:25-59)

In view of Jn 6:25, it would appear that this passage took place one day after Jn 6:22-24. The location is mentioned in Jn 6:59.

Location: Capernaum.

Index

Many stop following Jesus (Jn 6:60-71)

Location: Capernaum.

Index

The Lord heals many (Mt 14:35b-36, Mk 6:55-56)

The text is understood to refer to a period of time involving a number of days during which Jesus healed the sick. Now Mt 15:1 and Mk 7:1 mention scribes and Pharisees that had come from Jerusalem. It is unlikely that they would come from Jerusalem shortly before the Passover. Since the Passover was near at the time of Jn 6:4, it would appear that the interval of time of Mt 14:35b-36 and Mk 6:55-56 included the Passover feast. Thus, Mt 15:1 and Mk 7:1 took place after the Passover feast.

Index  Sequence

Defilement comes from within (Mt 15:1-11, Mk 7:1-16)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 15:1 indicates that this passage took place in the context of Mt 14:36, when Jesus was healing the sick. As mentioned in the note above on Mt 14:35b-36, Mk 6:55-56, the passage must have taken place after the Passover.

Time: Likely, after the Passover of AD 32.

Index  Sequence

The Lord explains his words about defilement (Mt 15:12-20, Mk 7:17-23)

Mk 7:17 indicates that this took place in a house. The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 15:12 indicates that this happened soon after Mt 15:11

Location: In a house.

Time: Likely, after the Passover of AD 32.

Index  Sequence

The faith of a Canaanite woman (Mt 15:21-28, Mk 7:24-30)

Mt 15:21 and Mk 7:24 indicate that Jesus departed to the region of Tyre and Sidon. The passage does not say that he arrived there, but only that he departed on a journey to that region. Note that την οικιαν "the house" (Mk 7:24) appears to refer to Peter's house in Capernaum; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26. Thus, on the way to Tyre and Sidon, the Lord Jesus stopped in Capernaum. It is possible that the reason he did not want anyone to know about it (Mk 7:24) was that he was on a journey and he did not intend to spend much time in Capernaum.

Location: Capernaum.

Index  Sequence

The Lord heals a deaf and mute man (Mk 7:31-37)

Location: Decapolis, near the Sea of Galilee.

Index  Sequence

The Lord heals many (Mt 15:29-31)

Location: On a mountain by the Sea of Galilee.

Index  Sequence

Jesus feeds 4000 (Mt 15:32-39, Mk 8:1-10)

As we read in Mt 15:32 and Mk 8:2, this happened when the crowds had been three days with Jesus.

Location: On a mountain by the Sea of Galilee.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 15:29-31.

Index  Sequence

The Pharisees and the Sadducees ask for a sign from heaven (Mt 16:1-4, Mk 8:11-12)

Considering the time of this passage, Mt 16:1 and Mk 8:11 do not require much time from the previous passage. It may be that Jesus fed the crowds early in the morning, before sending them on their way (Mt 15:32, Mk 8:3), for people normally departed on a journey in the morning. Then, he may have arrived to the other side on the same day. As for the location of Jesus in this passage, it can be inferred from Mt 15:39 and Mk 8:10.

Location: The region of Magdala in the district of Dalmanutha.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 15:29-31.

Index  Sequence

The leaven of the Pharisees (Mt 16:5-12, Mk 8:13-21)

Considering the time of this passage, since Mk 8:13 and Mt 16:4 do not imply much time from the previous passage, it may be that it happened on the same day. Based on the phrase μεθ εαυτων εν τω πλοιω "with themselves in the boat" in Mk 8:14, we could infer that this passage took place while they were in the boat, after they had departed from the region of Magdala. Since Jesus and his disciples came by boat to the region of Magdala (Mt 15:39), in the context of Mt 16, περαν "the other side" in Mt 16:5 must refer to the region of Magdala. Therefore, Mt 16:5 must refer to the time when they were in the region of Magdala, before they departed from there by boat. Thus, verse Mt 16:5 is understood as stating "Now, when His disciples had come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread"NKJV, with "the other side" referring to the region of Magdala. The disciples must have brought with them to the region of Magdala the seven baskets that were filled with the left over pieces (Mt 15:37, Mk 8:8). Apparently they took them out of the boat, for they did not have any bread with them when they departed by boat in Mk 8:13.

Location: In the boat on the Sea of Galilee.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 15:29-31.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals a blind man (Mk 8:22-26)

Note that the location is given in Mk 8:22. If the previous passage took place late during the day, it may be that this passage took place on the following day.

Location: Bethsaida.

Index

Peter confesses that Jesus is the Christ (Mt 16:13-20, Mk 8:27-30, Lk 9:18-21)

This happened in the region of Caesarea Philippi (Mt 16:13), on the road, while Jesus and his disciples were going to the villages of Caesarea Philippi (Mk 8:27), after a time of prayer of the Lord (Lk 9:18). The verb επερωταω "to ask" in Mk 8:27 and Lk 9:18 is a compound verb that includes the preposition επι "upon'. It could imply that the question "Who do men say that I am?" was in response to something that had happened earlier, perhaps something they were talking about, or a conversation among the disciples, or a conversation among others. Now the statement that "whatever thou shalt bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever thou shalt loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven" (Mt 16:19) is repeated also for all believers in Mt 18:18.

Location: The region of Caesarea Philippi.

Index  Sequence

The Lord begins to teach about his death and resurrection (Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, Lk 9:22)

The Lord spoke on this topic also sometime after the Transfiguration (Mt 17:22-23, Mk 9:31-32) and on the way to Jericho (Lk 18:31-34, Mt 20:17-19, Mk 10:32-34). Additionally, he predicted that he would be delivered into the hands of men one day after the Transfiguration (Lk 9:43-45) and shortly before the time of his suffering (Mt 26:1-2). On the Passover day in which he was arrested, Jesus predicted three times that he would be betrayed: in Mt 26:21-25 and Mk 14:18-21, in Lk 22:21-22, and in Jn 13:18-30. He spoke about his death and resurrection also in Jn 16:16-22.:

Location: The region of Caesarea Philippi.

Index  Sequence

The cost of discipleship (Lk 9:23-27)

See the note below on Mt 16:24-28.

Location: The region of Caesarea Philippi.

Index  Sequence

Jesus rebukes Peter (Mt 16:22-23, Mk 8:32b-33)

See the note below on Mt 17:1-9 for the time of this passage.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 16:21.

Index  Sequence

Jesus speaks to the disciples about the cost of discipleship (Mt 16:24-28)

The Lord spoke about the cost of discipleship also in Mk 8:34-9:1 and Lk 9:23-27. Comparing Mt 16:24-28, Mk 8:34-9:1, and Lk 9:23-27, while Lk 9:23-27 happened eight days before the Transfiguration (Lk 9:28), the other two passages took place later, six days before the Transfiguration (Mt 17:1, Mk 9:2). Considering the time of Mt 16:24-28 and Mk 8:34-9:1, it is apparent that Mt 16:24-28 happened first. To see this, we could note that Mk 8:33 corresponds to Mt 16:23 and that Mt 16:24 begins with the word τοτε "then", implying that Mt 16:24 followed shortly after Mt 16:23, while Mk 8:34 begins with και προσκαλεσαμενος τον οχλον ... ειπεν αυτοις "and after he has called the crowd ... he said to them", implying some time needed for the crowd to draw near. The differences between the words of the Lord in Mt 16:24-28 and Mk 8:34-9:1 support also the conclusion that Mt 16:24-28 and Mk 8:34-9:1 did not take place exactly at the same time. Thus, understanding that Mt 16:24-28 took place before Mk 8:34-9:1, the following event sequence is obtained. When Peter rebuked Jesus for accepting to suffer and die, Jesus rebuked Peter and reinstated what he taught in Lk 9:23-27, asking his disciples to deny themselves (Mt 16:24-28), just as he was willingly letting himself to suffer and to be killed. Then, he called the crowd and spoke to them with similar words (Mk 8:34-9:1).

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 16:21.

Index  Sequence

Jesus speaks to the crowd about the cost of discipleship (Mk 8:34-9:1)

See the note above on Mt 16:24-28.

Time: The 3rd day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 16:21.

Index  Sequence

The Transfiguration (Mt 17:1-9, Mk 9:2-10, Lk 9:28-36)

The time of Mt 17:1, Mk 9:2, and Lk 9:28 is six days after Mt 16:28 and Mk 9:1, but eight days after Lk 9:27. This shows that Lk 9:23-27 took place a few days before Mt 16:24-28 and Mk 8:34-9:1. The fact that the Lord taught several times on the same topic should not be surprising. Important topics had to be emphasized. Moreover, not everyone got to hear the Lord when he spoke Lk 9:23-27. Those who did not hear had also to be taught on this topic. Now by comparing passages in which the Lord predicted his resurrection, it becomes clear that the phrase "on the third day" (Mt 20:19, Mk 9:31) is equivalent to "after three days" (Mk 8:31, also in Mt 27:63). Thus, by considering the days from Lk 9:27 to Lk 9:28 it can be seen that Lk 9:27 was on day 1, while Lk 9:28 was on day 8, that is, one week later. Since Lk 9:28 and Mt 17:1 were on the same day and Mt 17:1 happened six days after Mt 16:28, it must be that Mt 16:28 was on day 3, or three days after Lk 9:27.

Location: On a mountain.

Time: The 8th day, counting beginning with the day of Mt 16:21.

Index  Sequence

About the coming of Elijah (Mt 17:9-13, Mk 9:9-13)

Based on Lk 9:37 it can be inferred that this passage took place on the day after the Transfiguration.

Location: On a mountain.

Time: The day after the Transfiguration.

Index  Sequence

Jesus drives out the evil spirit of a boy (Mt 17:14-18, Mk 9:14-27, Lk 9:37-42)

Time: The day after the Transfiguration.

Index  Sequence

Jesus predicts his betrayal (Lk 9:43-45)

See the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to related passages.

Time: The day after the Transfiguration.

Index  Sequence

The disciples ask the Lord why they could not drive out the evil spirit (Mt 17:19-21, Mk 9:28-29)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 17:19 indicates that this passage followed soon after Mt 17:18. It took place in a house (Mk 9:28).

Location: In a house.

Time: The day after the Transfiguration.

Index  Sequence

Jesus travels through Galilee (Mk 9:30, Jn 7:1)

In Jn 7:1, the tense of περιεπατει "he was going about" is the imperfect. This is taken as an indication that this verse speaks about a certain time following Jn 6:71 in which Jesus was traveling through Galilee. This time was identified here with the time of Mk 9:30. From Jn 7:1 we could also understand that during this time the Lord had the opportunity to go through Judea; however, he was unwilling to go there.

Location: Galilee.

Index  Sequence

Jesus speaks about his death and resurrection (Mt 17:22-23, Mk 9:31-32)

See the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to related passages.

Location: Galilee.

Index  Sequence

The Lord speaks to those who want to be first (Lk 9:46-48)

For a comparison to Mk 9:33-37, see the note below on Mk 9:38-41.

Index

"Whoever is not against us is for us" (Lk 9:49-50)

For a comparison to Mk 9:38-41, see the note below on Mk 9:38-41.

Index

Jesus' brothers urge him to go Judea (Jn 7:2-9)

As indicated in Jn 7:9, the Lord was in Galilee at this time.

Location: Galilee.

Index

Jesus goes to the Feast of Tabernacles (Jn 7:10)

Index

A Samaritan village rejects Jesus (Lk 9:51-56)

Location: Samaria.

Index

On the commitment of a disciple (Lk 9:57-62)

For a comparison to Mt 8:19-22, see the note above on Mt 8:18-22.

Location: On the road.

Index

Much talk about Jesus at the feast (Jn 7:11-13)

Location: Jerusalem.

Index

Jesus teaches and answers objections (Jn 7:14-29)

The phrase ηδη δε της εορτης μεσουσης "while the feast was already reaching its middle point" (Jn 7:14) indicates the time when Jesus went up to the temple and began to preach. Since the feast was seven days long (Nu 29:12), this must have been on the 4th day of the feast, namely the 18th of the 7th month. (Note that the feast began on the 15th day of the month, as stated in Lev 23:34.) Now the 18th of the 7th month was Sunday, October 12, AD 32. The fact that this was a Sunday fits the expectation that Jesus would not travel on a Saturday (a Sabbath).

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, October 12, AD 32.

Index

Some seek a way to seize Jesus, others believe (Jn 7:30-32)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, October 12, AD 32.

Index

Jesus speaks about his departure (Jn 7:33-36)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, October 12, AD 32.

Index

Jesus is the source of living water (Jn 7:37-39)

The day of this passage is described with the words εν δε τη εσχατη ημερα τη μεγαλη της εορτης "Now in the great last day of the feast" (Jn 7:37). In Jn 7:2, the feast is described with the words η εορτη των ιουδαιων η σκηνοπηγια, "the feast of the Jews, the setting up of booths". In the Septuagint, σκηνοπηγια "setting up of booths" appears in εορτη της σκηνοπηγιας, which translates the phrases חג הסכות and חג הסכת in De 31:10, 16:16, and Zec 14:16-19, both phrases denoting the Feast of Booths. The Feast of Booths consisted of a period of seven days in which the people were to live in booths (Lev 23:41-43). The eighth day was a day of assembly in which no work could be done (Nu 29:35). In a certain sense, the eighth day belonged to the feast, as it followed the seven days of the feast. However, Ne 8:18 calls the seventh day the last day of the feast, so we conclude that in Jn 7:37 also, the last day of the feast is the seventh, not the eighth day. The seventh day of the feast was the twenty-first day of the seventh month, that is, Wednesday, October 15, AD 32. While the passage does not state the location explicitly, it would appear that Jesus was in the temple. This could be inferred from Jn 8:2, which uses the word παλιν "again" when stating that Jesus went again to the temple on the following day.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Wednesday, October 15, AD 32.

Index

Division among the people concerning Jesus (Jn 7:40-44)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Wednesday, October 15, AD 32.

Index

The officers do not arrest Jesus (Jn 7:45-8:1)

Jn 7:53-8:1 indicates that this passage took place late in the day.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Wednesday, October 15, AD 32.

Index

Jesus acquits an adulteress and says to her, "Go and sin no more". (Jn 8:2-11)

As we read in Jn 8:2, after Jesus entered the temple, he sat down and began teaching the people. We infer that he was using a special place were a teacher could sit down and teach the people. This place must have separated somewhat the teacher from the people and must have been broad enough to allow others to come there. We infer that the scribes and the Pharisees came to that place and brought the woman with them (Jn 8:3). When they left, they probably left only the place of the teacher, without departing from the people who were gathered there. Indeed, the Lord appears to address them again in Jn 8:13-19. In view of Jn 8:20, this was happening in the treasury of the temple. Moreover, Jn 8:2 implies that the passage took place one day after Jn 8:1. Since Jn 8:1 was on the seventh day of the Feast of Booths, it follows that Jn 8:2 was on the eighth day, a day of assembly (Lev 23:35) in which no work could be done (Lev 23:39). The eighth day was the 22nd day of the 7th month, that is, Thursday, October 16, AD 32. Since the eighth day was a day of rest (note that the word שבתון, speaking of a complete rest, is used in Lev 23:39), there is no problem with the interpretation that this eighth day was the same as the Sabbath day of Jn 9:14. Other examples of feast days that did not have to fall on a Saturday and that were days of rest (Sabbaths) are the first day of of the Feast of Booths (the word שבתון is used in Lev 23:39) and the Day of Atonement (the phrase שבת שבתון is used in Lev 16:31, 23:32).

Location: In the treasury of the temple.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

The Lord speaks about himself (Jn 8:12-29)

The antecedent of αυτους in Jn 8:12 appears to be the same as in Jn 8:7, so in Jn 8:12 the Lord speaks again to the scribes and the Pharisees. Indeed, the Pharisees are the ones who answered in Jn 8:13. The topic of Jn 8:12 is also related to that of the previous passage, as it testifies to the fact that the one walks in sin does not follow Jesus. Now the Lord spoke to the Pharisees in the hearing of the people, for he was speaking these things while teaching in the temple (Jn 8:20).

Location: In the treasury of the temple.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

Those who belong to God listen to the truth (Jn 8:30-45)

Location: In the treasury of the temple.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

The Lord speaks about himself (Jn 8:46-58)

Location: In the treasury of the temple.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

An attempt to stone Jesus (Jn 8:59)

Location: In the treasury of the temple.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

Jesus heals a man born blind (Jn 9:1-7)

When the opponents of Jesus tried to stone him, he withdrew (Jn 8:59). As he passed by (Jn 9:1), he encountered this blind man. Given that the Lord sent the blind man to the pool of Siloam (Jn 9:7), it must be that the pool was not far from that place.

Location: Outside of the temple, near the pool of Siloam.

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

The people who knew the former blind man are confused (Jn 9:8-12)

Time: Thursday, October 16, AD 32.

Index

The Pharisees question the former blind man (Jn 9:13-17)

Note that Jn 9:14 might imply that Jn 9:13-17 did not take place on the same day as the previous passage. We could arrive to this conclusion by comparing Jn 9:14 with other passages speaking of Jesus performing a miracle on the Sabbath. Comparing Jn 5:9 and Jn 9:14 we can see that the former states ην δε σαββατον εν εκεινη τη ημερα "that day was a Sabbath", indicating not only that Jesus performed the healing on a Sabbath but also that Jn 5:10 took place on the same day. As for Jn 9:14, it does not use the word εκεινη "that", but only states that Jesus healed the blind man on a Sabbath.

In view of Jn 9:22, the phrase εξεβαλον αυτον εξω "they cast him out" in Jn 9:34 and Jn 9:35 must denote an excommunication from the synagogue. It might imply also that this passage took place in a synagogue. Another reference to a synagogue in Jerusalem is found in Ac 6:9.

Index

The Pharisees question the parents of the former blind man (Jn 9:18-23)

Index

The Pharisees question again the former blind man (Jn 9:24-34)

Index

The former blind man meets again Jesus and puts his faith in him (Jn 9:35-41)

Index

Jesus is the good shepherd (Jn 10:1-18)

Examining the Greek text, there is no indication of a pause between Jn 9:41 and Jn 10:1. Moreover, Jn 10:1 continues Jn 9:39-41. Note that Jn 9:39-41 alludes to the things that could be seen about Jesus, especially his miracles. All these things that could be seen about Jesus testified about him. The Lord continued speaking on this topic in Jn 10:1-18. The way he lived his life and the way he approached people testified that he is the Messiah. He was living in conformity to the Scripture and he was fulfilling it.

Index

Division among the people concerning Jesus (Jn 10:19-21)

Index

The Lord sends ahead seventy-two disciples (Lk 10:1-16)

Index

The seventy-two return (Lk 10:17-20)

Index

The Lord rejoices (Lk 10:21-24)

This occasion should not be confused with the one recorded in Mt 11:25-27, which took place earlier; see the note above on Mt 11:25-30. In the phrase εν αυτη τη ωρα "in that hour", the word "hour" is understood as denoting a literal hour. The other verses involving εν αυτη τη ωρα "in that hour" or αυτη τη ωρα "that hour" could be quoted in support of this view: Lk 20:19, Lk 24:33, Lk 2:38, Ac 22:13, Ac 16:18, and Lk 12:12.

Index

The Parable of the Good Samaritan (Lk 10:25-37)

Index

Jesus at the home of Mary and Martha (Lk 10:38-42)

Mary and Martha lived in Bethany (Jn 11:1). Since Jesus came to Mary and Martha while he was on a journey (Lk 10:38) and Bethany was near Jerusalem, it must be that Jesus was traveling to Jerusalem. The verb υποδεχομαι "to receive" is also used in Lk 19:6 in the context of Zacchaeus hosting Jesus in his house. At that time Jesus lodged for the night in the house of Zacchaeus (Lk 19:5, 7); indeed, note the verb καταλυω "to lodge" in Lk 19:7. Thus, the verb υποδεχομαι in Lk 10:38 could imply that Jesus and his disciples lodged in the house of Martha. She must have had a large house; note that the word οικος, not οικια, is used for the house of Martha in Lk 10:38. Jesus stopped at her house also at the end of his last trip to Jerusalem, before he went to Jerusalem (Jn 12:1-9).

Location: Bethany.

Index

Jesus at the Feast of Dedication (Jn 10:20-22)

Since Mary and Martha lived near Jerusalem, Jesus' visit to Mary and Martha indicates a time when he went to Jerusalem. Therefore, it seems appropriate to assume that Jn 10:20-22 took place about the time of Lk 10:38-42. The year AD 32 of this event is obtained by assuming that Jesus was crucified in AD 33.

Location: In the temple.

Time: December, AD 32.

Index

Jesus speaks about who he is (Jn 10:23-38)

Location: In the temple.

Time: December, AD 32.

Index

Some seek to arrest Jesus (Jn 10:39)

Location: In the temple.

Time: December, AD 32.

Index

Jesus goes to the region where John had been baptizing (Jn 10:40-42)

In the context of the previous verses, which took place in Jerusalem, the phrase περαν του ιορδανου "across the Jordan River" must denote the land east of the Jordan River. The location appears to be Bethabara; see the note above on Jn 1:19-28.

Location: Bethabara.

Index

The Lord teaches about prayer (Lk 11:1-13)

The Lord taught this model prayer also earlier, in Mt 6:9-13. Examining the Greek text, there are several differences between Mt 6:9-13 and Lk 11:2-4. A possible interpretation would be that by means of these differences the Lord has indicated that he was teaching a model prayer, not a prayer that should be recited word-for-word.

Index

Jesus drives out the demon of a mute man (Lk 11:14)

The phrase και ην εκβαλλων "and he was driving out" is understood here to indicate a different time, though perhaps during the same day. As we see in other passages, Jesus would normally seek to pray privately. However, at this time there was crowd. Thus, it seems clear that Lk 11:14 did not happen immediately after Lk 11:1-13.

Index

Jesus explains that he is manifesting a power for superior than that of Satan (Lk 11:15-26)

The Lord spoke on this topic also earlier in his ministry, in Mt 12:25-37 and Mk 3:22-30.

Index

Those who hear and keep God's word are blessed (Lk 11:27-28)

The Lord spoke also at the time of Mt 12:46-50 and Mk 3:31-35 about the blessedness of those who do the will of God. It is interesting to notice that the context of Lk 11:27-28, Mt 12:46-50, and Mk 3:31-35 is similar. In each case, the Lord had spoken on the topic of demon-possessed people. While the enemy has strongholds in all, those who repent overcome him. In contrast, the spiritual condition of a person who does not respond to God's grace can get worse (Mt 12:45). A person who follows the Lord is blessed. There is no other way a person can be truly blessed, not even if he is blood related to the human nature of the Lord.

Index

About unjustified requests for signs (Lk 11:29-32)

In view of Lk 11:16, we could conclude that this passage happened about the time of Lk 11:27-28. Indeed, having answered first in Lk 11:17-26 the objection mentioned in Lk 11:15, Jesus was now answering the attitude of those mentioned in Lk 11:16. The Lord has used similar words in Mt 12:41-42 when answering the request of the scribes and Pharisees to see a sign.

Index

The lamp of the body (Lk 11:33-36)

This passage is related to Lk 11:29-32 in that signs do not lead to repentance (Lk 16:31). The reason they were asking for more signs is that they were unwilling to repent. The Lord spoke about the lamp of the body also in Mt 6:22-23. The Lord has used the illustration that a lamp is placed on a stand in other contexts also (Mt 5:15, Mk 4:21, Lk 8:16).

Index

A Pharisee invites Jesus to dine with him (Lk 11:37)

Index

The Pharisees and the scribes are warned of God's judgment (Lk 11:38-52)

The Lord spoke again on this topic later in Mt 23.

Location: In a house.

Index

The Pharisees and the scribes oppose Jesus bitterly (Lk 11:53-54)

Location: In a house.

Index

Beware of hypocrisy (Lk 12:1-3)

There are several other passages in which the Lord has mentioned that hidden things will be revealed (Mt 10:26, Mk 4:22, Lk 8:17).

Index

Fear God, not man (Lk 12:4-12)

The Lord spoke on these topics at other times also. Thus, Lk 12:4-9 resemble Mt 10:28-33, while Lk 12:11-12 is similar to Mt 10:19-20, Mk 13:11, and Lk 21:14-15. Moreover, Lk 12:10 is similar to Mt 12:31-32 and Mk 3:28-29.

Index

The parable of the rich fool (Lk 12:13-21)

Index

Do not worry (Lk 12:22-34)

The Lord used similar words when he spoke Mt 6:25-33 and Mt 6:20-21.

Index

Be ready (Lk 12:35-48)

The Lord spoke the words of Lk 12:42-46 also in Mt 24:45-51.

Index

The work of salvation is contrary to the course of this world (Lk 12:49-53)

Note that Mt 10:34-35 is a passage in which the Lord spoke with words similar to those of Lk 12:51, 53.

Index

Be reconciled to God! (Lk 12:54-59)

The Lord used the illustration of Lk 12:58-59 also in Mt 5:25-26.

Index

Those who do not repent will perish (Lk 13:1-5)

The phrase εν αυτω τω καιρω "at that season" is interpreted here as indicating that this happened in the same time period as the previous passage, though not necessarily on the same day.

Index

The parable of the barren fig tree (Lk 13:6-9)

Since this parable is on the topic of Lk 13:1-5, it was probably spoken about the time of Lk 13:1-5.

Index

The Lord heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath (Lk 13:10-17)

Verse 10 is understood here as implying that this passage did not take place at the same time as the previous passage.

Location: In a synagogue.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The parable of the mustard seed (Lk 13:18-19)

The parables of Lk 13:18-21 are interpreted here as part of the sermon that Jesus preached in the synagogue after he healed the woman with the spirit of infirmity. Their relationship to the preceding passage could be explained as follows. The parables are about the kingdom of God. As stated explicitly in various passages, Jesus proclaimed the gospel of the kingdom (Mt 4:23, Mk 1:14). The miracles performed by the Lord demonstrated the nearness of God's kingdom (Mt 12:28).

The Lord spoke the parable of the mustard seed also in Mt 13:31-32 and Mk 4:30-32.

Location: In a synagogue.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

The parable of the yeast (Lk 13:20-21)

See the previous note. Note that the Lord spoke the parable of the yeast also in Mt 13:33.

Location: In a synagogue.

Time: On a Sabbath.

Index

Mary and Martha send word to Jesus that Lazarus is sick (Jn 11:1-6)

The possibility that Jn 11:1-54 happened between Lk 13:21 and Lk 13:22 is discussed in the note below on Lk 13:22. As indicated in Jn 11:7, Jesus was not in Judea at the time of Jn 11:1-6.

Index

The Lord goes to Judea (Jn 11:7-16)

While the passage does not mention where Jesus was (Jn 11:6), assuming that Lazarus was buried on the day when he died, the Lord's journey to Bethany could have taken him as much as three days, as could be inferred from Jn 11:13-14, 17.

Index

The Lord meets Mary and Martha (Jn 11:17-37)

Considering the location of this passage, as we read in Jn 11:30, the Lord was outside of the village.

Location: Near Bethany.

Index

The Lord raises Lazarus from the dead (Jn 11:38-44)

Location: Near Bethany.

Index

Many believe in Jesus. Some tell the Pharisees about the miracle. (Jn 11:45-46)

Index

A meeting of the Sanhedrin is called (Jn 11:47-53)

Index

Jesus withdraws to a village Ephraim (Jn 11:54)

In the statement that ιησους ουν ουκ ετι παρρησια περιεπατει εν τοις ιουδαιοις "Therefore, Jesus was no longer walking openly among the Jews", the tense of περιεπατει "was walking" is the imperfect. This is understood here as implying that the statement refers only to the period of time immediately following the resurrection of Lazarus. Jesus did walk openly among the Jews later, such as during his triumphal entry.

Index

Jesus goes through towns and villages on his way to Jerusalem (Lk 13:22)

In the phrase και διεπορευετο "and he was traveling", the conjunction και "and" is taken here as an indication that this is something that happened after Lk 13:21. For example, note that και ειπεν "and he said" at the beginning of Lk 14:22 introduces a sentence that happened some time after the previous verse, Lk 14:21. An interpretation in which Lk 13:21 happened while the Lord was on the journey mentioned in Lk 13:22 seems unlikely. If Lk 13:22 had διεπορευετο δε instead of και διεπορευετο, we could have inferred, perhaps, that Lk 13:21 happened while he was on this journey. For example, note συνεπορευοντο δε αυτω οχλοι πολλοι "Now large crowds followed him" in Lk 14:25, which is about crowds following Jesus both before and after Lk 14:25.

Considering Lk 13:35, the Lord said that Jerusalem would not see him until the time when he would be greeted with the words "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord". If the Lord had in view not only his second coming but also his triumphal entry in Jerusalem (Mt 21:9, Mk 11:9, Lk 19:38, Jn 12:13), we could reason that the raising of Lazarus from the dead happened before Lk 13:35, since Bethany was very close to Jerusalem. Then, in view of Lk 13:31, the Lord was in the territory controlled by Herod (that is, Galilee) at the time of Lk 13:22.

Location: Galilee.

Index

"Strive to enter through the narrow gate" (Lk 13:23-30)

This passage took place while Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem (Lk 13:22), before he left Galilee (Lk 13:31). Moreover, in view of Lk 13:31, this passage took place on the same day as Lk 13:31-35. Now Lk 13:33 indicates that at that time Jesus was traveling every day towards Jerusalem. Additionally, based on Lk 13:32, it can be inferred that Jesus finished his work in Galilee on the third day. By the time of Lk 17:11, Jesus had left Galilee. Since Jesus was traveling every day towards Jerusalem (Lk 13:33), there must be only a few days between Lk 13:23 and Lk 17:11. Four days are assumed here, as follows. First, note that εν αυτη τη ημερα "on the same day" appears in Lk 13:31, but not in Lk 14:1; in Lk 14:1, we simply read that the account took place on the Sabbath. Thus, Lk 13:23-35 and Lk 14:1 are likely to have taken place on different days. It was assumed here that Lk 14:1 followed one day after Lk 13:23-35. Thus, Lk 13:23-35 was on a Friday and Lk 14:1 on the following Saturday. The Sabbath was a time when people would rest and listen to God's word. Since Jesus interacted much with unbelievers in Lk 15:1-16:31, it would appear that these passages took place on the Sabbath of Lk 14:1. The third day of Lk 13:32-33 appears to be the day when he came to Capernaum (Mt 17:24, Mk 9:33). In this interpretation, this is when the Lord completed his work in Galilee (Lk 13:32). The following day must have been when he left Galilee and Lk 17:11 took place. Now the events recorded in the Gospels between the time of Lk 14:1 and the time when Jesus came to Bethany (Jn 12:1) do not require a period longer than about one week. Therefore, it was assumed here that the Sabbath of Lk 14:1 preceded by one week the time when Jesus came to Bethany (Jn 12:1). The date of March 20 AD 33 is obtained for Lk 13:23-30 by assuming that Jesus was crucified on April 3 AD 33.

Location: Galilee.

Time: Friday, March 20, AD 33.

Index

Some Pharisees come to Jesus and tell him about Herod's intent to kill him (Lk 13:31-33)

As stated in Lk 13:31, this passage took place on the same day as Lk 13:23-30. Since Herod ruled over Galilee (Lk 3:1, 23:6-7), this passage indicates that Jesus was in Galilee. Moreover, since Lk 13:33 mentions that the Lord was on a journey, the statement και τη τριτη τελειουμαι "and on the third day I will finish" is interpreted here as indicating that he intended to finish his ministry in Galilee on the third day and leave Galilee soon afterwards. In this interpretation, Jesus was telling Herod that he would be on his territory for only a few more days and that he was on his way to his death in Jerusalem.

Location: Galilee.

Time: Friday, March 20, AD 33.

Index

Jesus laments over Jerusalem (Lk 13:34-35)

The Lord spoke on this topic also in Lk 19:41-44, at a time when he was received with the words "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord" (Mk 11:9, Lk 19:38). Now the words of the Lord in Lk 13:35 seem to apply not only to his first coming, but also to his second coming.

Location: Galilee.

Time: Friday, March 20, AD 33.

Index

Jesus goes to the house of a prominent Pharisee (Lk 14:1)

This happened on a Sabbath. The word αρχων "ruler" is applied to the persons mentioned in Mt 9:18 and Lk 18:18, to Jairus as the ruler of the synagogue (Lk 8:41), and to Nicodemus, a Pharisee who was a ruler of the Jews (Jn 3:1). Many rulers believed in him (Jn 12:42).

Location: In a Pharisee's house.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Jesus heals a man suffering from dropsy (Lk 14:2-6)

The Lord asked a question similar to Lk 14:3 in Mk 3:4 and Lk 6:9. The question that he asked in Lk 14:3 is the question that he was asked in Mt 12:10. The Lord used in Lk 14:5 an illustration similar to the one of Mt 12:11-12. The fact that the Lord used similar illustrations at different times emphasizes that the Pharisees were unable to refute his words.

Location: In a Pharisee's house.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Lord speaks to those seeking positions of honor (Lk 14:7-11)

The Lord has used the words of Lk 14:11 also in other contexts (Lk 18:13, Mt 23:12).

Location: In a Pharisee's house.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Whom to invite to a banquet (Lk 14:12-14)

The conjunction δε at the beginning of Lk 14:12 might indicate that the Lord did not speak the words of Lk 14:12-14 immediately after Lk 14:7-11. There were probably some other things that he spoke on between Lk 14:11 and Lk 14:12.

Location: In a Pharisee's house.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Great Banquet (Lk 14:15-24)

The Lord spoke a similar parable later in Mt 22:1-14, but apparently with a different purpose.

Location: In a Pharisee's house.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

No one can be a disciple without loving God above everything else (Lk 14:25-35)

The Lord spoke on this topic at other times also. Thus, Lk 14:26 resembles Mt 10:37, and Lk 14:27 resembles Lk 9:23, Mt 10:38, Mt 16:24, and Mk 8:34. Moreover, Lk 14:34 resembles Mt 5:13 and Mk 9:50.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Pharisees and the teachers of the law complain that Jesus welcomes sinners (Lk 15:1-2)

By considering other passages, it can be seen that this was not a new complaint (Lk 5:30, Mt 9:11, Mk 2:16).

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Lost Sheep (Lk 15:3-7)

The Lord spoke a similar parable in Mt 18:11-14. However, the Lord did not apply the two parables exactly the same way, as could be seen by considering Mt 18:14 and Lk 15:7.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Lost Coin (Lk 15:8-10)

Examining the text in the original language, there is no indication that this parable and the previous parable could have been spoken at different times. We can conclude that the Lord spoke this parable and the previous parable in the same occasion.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Lost Son (Lk 15:11-32)

In the context of the previous two parables and of the following parable, it would seem that this parable was spoken about the same time. This parable and the previous two are related in that they speak about the love of God for the lost. The following parable is also related, as it speaks about how believers should respond to God's love for the lost.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Shrewd Manager (Lk 16:1-9)

We read that "And he was also speaking to his disciples ... " (Lk 16:1). Here, και "also" makes a parallel to Lk 15:3 in which we read that the Lord spoke to the Pharisees and the teachers of the law. He spoke to them the three parables of the previous chapter. However, this parable was spoken to the disciples. The word "also" could be taken as an indication that the Lord spoke this parable about the same time as the previous three parables. The Pharisees were still present when he spoke this parable (Lk 16:14).

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

About unfaithfulness and the love of money (Lk 16:10-15)

As stated in the preceding verse (Lk 16:9), believers should make friends with the resources they have been entrusted with. The parable of the dishonest manager illustrates this point. However, believers are not to be dishonest, but rather live with integrity. Integrity will lead them to manage whatever God has entrusted them according to its intended use (Lk 16:12). Now the Lord spoke the words of Lk 16:13 also in Mt 6:24, in the Sermon on the Mount. The fact that we find the same statement in two different contexts adds emphasis to what was stated. Moreover, in the context of this passage, the abomination mentioned in verse 15 must refer to the fact that the love of money makes mammon an idol, that is, an abomination.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Not one tittle of the law will fall (Lk 16:16-17)

Lk 16:16 is related to the previous verses in that the Lord was showing the Pharisees that they were missing something very important. A new age was beginning, people were responding and advancing towards the kingdom of God, while the Pharisees continued to be devoted to things of this world, such as the love of money. By saying that "the law and the prophets were until John", the Lord was not annulling the law and the prophets, as could be seen in the next verse, but he was indicating that a new age was beginning, the church age. Lk 16:17 is related to Lk 16:16 in that it shows that the Lord was not annulling the law and the prophets. A passage related to Lk 16:16-17 is Mt 5:17-20.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

On divorce and remarriage (Lk 16:18)

The relation of this verse to the previous verses is as follows. The words of the Lord on divorce and remarriage represented a strict interpretation of the law. Those who were not so strict could arrive to different conclusions, for example, by interpreting loosely the word ערות in De 24:1 as referring to offenses less serious than immorality, or by substituting לא with לו, as in the Qere note of Ex 21:8. By speaking the words of Lk 16:18, the Lord was showing that he follows a strict interpretation of the law, just as in the previous verse he stated that the Scripture had been written well and did not need any corrections, not even the smallest conceivable corrections. The Lord has addressed the topic of Lk 16:18 also in Mt 5:31-32, 19:9 and Mk 10:11-12.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The rich man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31)

The words of the Lord in this passage were a warning to those who served money rather than God. Since the Pharisees loved money (Lk 16:14), it would seem reasonable to assume that the Lord spoke about the rich man and Lazarus at the time of Lk 16:14.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Spiritual stumbling blocks are a very serious matter. On sin and forgiveness. (Lk 17:1-4)

Related to Lk 17:3-4 is Mt 18:21-22. The Lord stated also in Mt 18:7 that stumbling blocks must come. He mentioned also in Mt 18:6 and Mk 9:42 that it is preferable to have a millstone tied around the neck and be thrown into the sea than to cause one of the little ones to stumble. The Lord added emphasis to these topics by addressing them more than once. Note that as interpreted in this chronology, all of Lk 17:1-4, Mt 18:6-9, and Mk 9:42-48 took place at different times.

As for the time of this passage, there seems to be no indication that Lk 16 took place on another day. Thus, it was assumed here that Lk 17:1-4 and Lk 16 took place on the same day.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Through faith in God all things are possible (Lk 17:5-6)

The Lord spoke about the potential of faith as a mustard seed also in Mt 17:20. He spoke about the power of faith also in Mt 21:21, Mk 9:23, and Mk 11:22-23. A study of this topic appears in the article Asking and Receiving.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

Proper servant attitude (Lk 17:7-10)

This passage is related to the request of the apostles in Lk 17:5 in that faith grows when one serves the Lord (Ps 111:10). The verb προστιτημι "to add" that appears in Lk 17:5, appears also in "unto you that hear shall more be given" (Mk 4:24). It is interesting to note that Mk 4:24 is another verse that relates obedience to spiritual growth.

Time: Saturday, March 21, AD 33.

Index

The Lord comes to Capernaum (Mt 17:24a, Mk 9:33a)

The Gospels of Matthew and Mark indicate that before Jesus left Galilee (Mt 19:1, Mk 10:1), he came to Capernaum (Mt 17:24, Mk 9:33). Since travel typically began in the morning, the Lord must have stayed overnight in Capernaum. In principle, he could have stayed in Capernaum several days. However, since Lk 13:33 indicates that he would travel every day towards Jerusalem, it could be concluded that he spent only one night in Capernaum. Now Mt 19:1 indicates that Jesus departed from Capernaum soon after the end of Mt 18. Since the verses of Mt 17:25-18:35 appear to have taken place on the same day, Mt 17:24 is understood as implying that (a) Jesus came to Capernaum and (b) that sometimes afterwards, on the following day, the persons collecting the two-drachma tax came.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Sunday, March 22, AD 33 .

Index

The Lord speaks to those who want to be first (Mk 9:33-37)

For a comparison to Lk 9:46-48, see the note below on Mk 9:38-41. As for the location, note the definite article in τη οικια "the house" in Mk 9:33. Since the house was in Capernaum, it must have been Peter's house; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26.

Location: Inside Peter's house, in Capernaum.

Time: Sunday, March 22, AD 33 .

Index

"Whoever is not against us is for us" (Mk 9:38-41)

A comparison of Mk 9:33-41 to Lk 9:46-50 reveals many similarities. However, it seems that Mk 9:33-41 and Lk 9:46-50 did not take place at the same time. We could arrive to this conclusion by considering Mk 10:1, which states that κακειθεν αναστας ερχεται εις τα ορια της ιουδαιας "And having departed from there, he comes into the borders of Judea". This implies that in his final trip to Jerusalem, Jesus came to Judea not many days after the time of Mk 9:33-50. However, there is clearly some time between Lk 9:46-50 and the final trip to Jerusalem, though Lk 9:46-50 is also in the context of a trip to Jerusalem (Lk 9:51-56). Moreover, it is not difficult to explain the similarities of Mk 9:33-41 and Lk 9:46-50 if we accept that Lk 9:46-50 took place before Mk 9:33-41. Disputes about who was the greatest were frequent among the disciples, so it is not surprising to have Mk 9:33-41 and Lk 9:46-50 relate two different occasions in which the disciples argued about it. By responding similarly in both occasions, the Lord reinforced his teaching. The response of the Lord in Mk 9:35-37 must have reminded John of the question he asked in Lk 9:49. Since the instruction of the Lord in Lk 9:50 was somehow not followed (Mk 9:38), John asked the same question once again. John addressed the Lord with επιστατα "overseer" in Lk 9:49, but διδασκαλε "teacher" in Mk 9:38. The answer of the Lord was addressed specifically to John in Lk 9:50, for we find the phrase προς αυτον "to him" in και ειπεν προς αυτον ο ιησους μη κωλυετε "and Jesus said to him, 'Forbid ye not'". However, in Mk 9:39 we do not find the phrase προς αυτον "to him", but simply ο δε ιησους ειπεν μη κωλυετε αυτον "And Jesus said 'Forbid ye not him'". We could reason that John had been one of those who forbade a man to cast out demons in the name of Jesus in Lk 9:49, but in obedience to the word of the Lord, he was not involved in the instance reported in Mk 9:38. The answer of the Lord in Lk 9:50 is short, but considerably longer in Mk 9:39-41. It may be that the Lord used more words in Mk 9:39-41 because his original instruction in Lk 9:50 was not followed.

Location: Inside Peter's house, in Capernaum.

Time: Sunday, March 22, AD 33 .

Index

Spiritual stumbling blocks are a very serious matter (Mk 9:42-48)

See the note above on Lk 17:1-4.

Location: Inside Peter's house, in Capernaum.

Time: Sunday, March 22, AD 33 .

Index

"Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another" (Mk 9:49-50)

The Lord made similar remarks about salt in Lk 14:34 and Mt 5:13.

Location: Inside Peter's house, in Capernaum.

Time: Sunday, March 22, AD 33 .

Index

The two-drachma tax (Mt 17:24b-27)

After the Lord sent Peter to fish, it appears that Peter returned about the time of Mt 18:21. Since Jesus mentioned that the first fish would have the coin, it probably did not take much time for Peter to get it. It must have been also the will of the Lord that this should be accomplished quickly, since they were to resume their travel on that same day (Mt 19:1). As for the location, note the definite article in τη οικια "the house" in Mt 17:25. Since the house was in Capernaum, it must have been Peter's house; see the note above on Mt 9:1b-8, Mk 2:1-12, and Lk 5:17-26.

Location: Inside Peter's house, in Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

The disciples ask who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven (Mt 18:1-5)

Considering the introductory phrase εν εκεινη τη ωρα "in that hour" of Mt 18:1, there is no reason to assume that the word "hour" is used figuratively. It follows that this passage took place soon after Peter left.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

Spiritual stumbling blocks are a very serious matter (Mt 18:6-9)

See the note above on Lk 17:1-4.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

The parable of the lost sheep (Mt 18:10-14)

The words of the Lord in this passage must have reminded the disciples about the parable that he spoke earlier in Lk 15:3-7. Moreover, Mt 18:11 is almost identical to what the Lord stated later in Lk 19:10.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

"If thy brother sins against thee ..." (Mt 18:15-17)

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

"Whatever ye bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven" (Mt 18:18-20)

In Mt 18:18, the Lord repeats something that he spoke to Peter in Mt 16:19. This time, however, in the context of Mt 18:18, the words are addressed to all believers, not just to Peter.

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

The parable of the unmerciful servant (Mt 18:21-35)

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

The Lord and his disciples resume their journey (Mt 19:1a, Mk 10:1a)

Location: Capernaum.

Time: Monday, March 23, AD 33.

Index

Ten healed of leprosy (Lk 17:11-19)

The location is mentioned in Lk 17:11-12. Since Jesus was traveling every day towards Jerusalem (Lk 13:33), this passage must have taken place soon after he departed from Capernaum. It was assumed here that this passage took place on the following day. See also the note above on Mt 9:20-22 about the statement η πιστις σου σεσωκεν σε "Thy faith hath saved thee" (Lk 17:19).

Location: Near a village, in the border region of Galilee and Samaria.

Time: Tuesday, March 24, AD 33.

Index

The Coming of the Kingdom of God (Lk 17:20-21)

The Lord has been asked about the coming of the kingdom in other occasions as well (Mt 24:3, Ac 1:6). Here, απεκριθη αυτοις και ειπεν "he answered them and said" (Lk 17:20) indicates that the passage does not include the entire answer of the Lord.

Time: Tuesday, March 24, AD 33.

Index

End time events (Lk 17:22-37)

Since the previous two verses are about the coming of the kingdom, it may be that this passage took place at the time of Lk 17:20-21. In the Gospel of Luke, the Lord spoke again about end times in Lk 21. Several of parts of Lk 17:22-37 have been spoken by the Lord also in other occasions. Thus, Lk 17:26-27, 34-35 parallel Mt 24:37-41. Moreover, the Lord used the same illustrations in Lk 17:31, Mt 24:17-18, and Mk 13:15-16, when speaking about circumstances in which one cannot tarry. Furthermore, he used the illustration of the eagles and the dead body in both Lk 17:37 and Mt 24:28.

Time: Tuesday, March 24, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Persistent Widow (Lk 18:1-8)

Verse 8 fits the end times context of the previous passage. The point of the parable also, that one should persevere in prayer and never give up, fits the previous passage. These could be taken as indications that the Lord spoke this parable about the same time as the previous passage. The presence of και "also" in ελεγεν δε και "and he was also saying" in Lk 18:1 would also lead to the same conclusion. Now the tense of ελεγεν "he was saying" is the imperfect. It could imply that this parable did not follow immediately after the previous passage.

Time: Tuesday, March 24, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector (Lk 18:9-14)

The word και at the beginning of verse 9 means "also"; it could be understood as an indication that this parable was spoken at the time of the previous passage. While the parable can be applied to people of every generation, it will have a special meaning for those living in the times of the end, as it will be very important to be right with God before the rapture comes (Lk 21:36). Thus, Lk 18:9-14 is related to the previous passages.

Time: Tuesday, March 24, AD 33.

Index

The Lord comes to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan (Mt 19:1b, Mk 10:1a)

The Lord came to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan River (Mt 19:1) by going δια του περαν του ιορδανου "through the land across the Jordan River" (Mk 10:1).

Location: Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Wednesday, March 25, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus teaches the people and heals the sick (Mt 19:2, Mk 10:1b)

When the Lord Jesus came to Judea beyond the Jordan, he probably stopped to a place where he could lodge for the night. It probably took some time for all the crowds to gather. Most likely, Mt 19:2 and Mk 10:1b refer to something that was done (at least for the most part) on the following day.

Location: Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Pharisees ask about divorce (Mt 19:3-9, Mk 10:2-9)

The Lord has addressed the topic of Mt 19:9 also later in Mk 10:11-12, a few days earlier in Lk 16:18, and at the beginning of his ministry in Mt 5:31-32.

Location: Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

About celibacy (Mt 19:10-12)

Location: Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Children are brought to Jesus (Mt 19:13, Lk 18:15)

In view of the word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 19:13, it could be concluded that people began bringing children shortly after Mt 19:12. Since the similar verse Mk 10:13 took place after Jesus had entered the house, it could be inferred that Jesus was unable to receive the children right away. He received them some time after he entered the house. The word ιδοντες "having seen" in Lk 18:15 was interpreted as indicating that the verse speaks about the first time when the disciples became aware that children were brought to Jesus. Therefore, Lk 18:15 was associated with Mt 19:13 and not with Mk 10:13.

Location: Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The disciples ask about divorce (Mk 10:10-12)

The Lord spoke on the topic of Mk 10:11-12 also in Mt 19:9, a few days earlier in Lk 16:18, and at the beginning of his ministry in Mt 5:31-32. The passage took place εν τη οικια "in the house" (Mk 10:10). The house mentioned in Mk 10:10 is likely the house in which Jesus had spent the night.

Location: In a house in Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus welcomes little children (Mt 19:14-15, Mk 10:13-16, Lk 18:16-17)

This appears to have taken place in the house mentioned in Mk 10:10. See the note above on Mt 19:13 and Lk 18:15.

Location: In a house in Judea beyond the Jordan.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

A rich young ruler asks Jesus about eternal life (Mt 19:16-22, Mk 10:17-22, Lk 18:18-23)

The location is mentioned in Mk 10:17.

Location: Outside of the house, on the way to the road.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

About salvation. Those who sacrifice themselves for Christ are rewarded. (Mt 19:23-30, Mk 10:23-31, Lk 18:24-30)

Location: Outside of the house, on the way to the road.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Parable of the Vineyard Workers (Mt 20:1-16)

Location: Outside of the house, on the way to the road.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index

Jesus predicts again his death (Mt 20:17-19, Mk 10:32-34, Lk 18:31-34)

See the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to related passages. The location is mentioned in Mt 20:17 and Mk 10:32.

Location: On the road.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The request of James and John (Mt 20:20-23, Mk 10:35-40)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 20:20 indicates that this took place about the same time as the previous passage in Mt 20:17-19.

Location: On the road.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

About leadership (Mt 20:24-28, Mk 10:41-45)

The Lord spoke again on this topic later, in Lk 22:25-27.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus heals a blind beggar (Lk 18:35-43)

See the note below on Mt 20:29-34.

Location: Near Jericho.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index

Jesus meets Zacchaeus (Lk 19:1-5)

Location: Jericho.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index

Zacchaeus receives Jesus in his house (Lk 19:6-7)

Location: In the house of Zacchaeus.

Time: Thursday, March 26, AD 33.

Index

Zacchaeus responds to the gospel (Lk 19:8-10)

In view of Lk 19:11, this took place shortly before Lk 19:11-27. Since Jesus departed after he spoke the parable (Lk 19:28), we could infer that Lk 19:8-28 took place early in the morning on the day after Jesus entered Jericho. Now Mt 18:11 is almost identical to what the Lord stated later in Lk 19:10.

Location: In the house of Zacchaeus.

Time: Friday, March 27, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Ten Minas (Lk 19:11-28)

Location: In the house of Zacchaeus.

Time: Friday, March 27, AD 33.

Index

Jesus heals Bartimaeus (Mk 10:46-52)

See the note below on Mt 20:29-34. Assuming that Jesus spent only one night in Jericho, this must have taken place one day after the healing of the blind man recorded in Lk 18:35-43.

Location: Near Jericho.

Time: Friday, March 27, AD 33.

Index

Jesus heals two blind men (Mt 20:29-34)

Comparing Mt 20:29-34 with Mk 10:45-52 and Lk 18:35-43, it can be noted that Mt 20:29-34 and Mk 10:46-52 happened when Jesus was leaving Jericho (Mt 20:29, Mk 10:46), while Lk 18:35-43 happened when he was going to Jericho (Lk 18:35). Thus, if the Lord spent only one night in Jericho, then Mt 20:29-34 and Mk 10:46-52 took place one day after Lk 18:35-43. Comparing Mt 20:29-34 and Mk 10:46-52, since the former involves the healing of two blind men while the latter the healing of only one blind men, it is apparent that they correspond to different occasions. Considering the order in which information is presented in these two passages, from the time Jesus departed to the time he performed the healings, it can be seen that Bartimaeus is mentioned from the beginning, while the two blind men are introduced later. Indeed, Mk 10:46 states that εκπορευομενου αυτου ... βαρτιμαιος ο τυφλος εκαθητο παρα την οδον "while he was going out ... Bartimaeus the blind man was sitting by the roadside". This is understood to imply that Bartimaeus was already sitting by the roadside when Jesus departed. In comparison, the two blind men are not mentioned from the beginning, as Mt 20:29-30 states that εκπορευομενων αυτων ... ηκολουθησεν αυτω οχλος πολυς και ιδου δυο τυφλοι καθημενοι παρα την οδον "while they were going out ... a large crowd followed him. And behold, two blind men sat by the roadside ... ". We do not read that these two blind men were begging. Rather, it may be that they were expecting Jesus to come that way and they were seeking to meet him. Since Bartimaeus is introduced before the two blind men, it seems natural to assume that Mk 10:46-52 took place before Mt 20:29-34. Now comparing Mt 20:29-34 with the other two accounts, two unique features of this instance are that the blind men may have not been beggars and that the Lord touched their eyes. In all three instances, the blind men used similar words. However, this should not be surprising. As news about the miracles of Jesus spread out, the words used by those asking for healing were also communicated. Thus, people seeking to be healed by Jesus would address him in a similar manner, in the hope of obtaining the same healing grace. It is interesting that in each of the three instances the crowds rebuked the blind men when they tried to meet Jesus. This could reflect the opposition of the enemy, who does not want people to come to faith in Jesus. See also the note above on Mt 9:20-22 about the statement η πιστις σου σεσωκεν σε "Thy faith hath saved thee" (Mk 10:52, Lk 18:42). Another occasion in which the Lord healed two blind men appears in Mt 9:27-31.

Location: Near Jericho.

Time: Friday, March 27, AD 33.

Index

Many look for Jesus (Jn 11:55-57)

Location: Jerusalem.

Index

The Lord comes to Bethany (Jn 12:1)

The Lord came to Bethany προ εξ ημερων του πασχα "six days before the Passover" (Jn 12:1). (To see that the translation of προ εξ ημερων του πασχα is correct, we could consider the instances in which this Greek idiom appears in the LXX, namely, προ δυο ετων του σεισμου in Am 1:1, translating שנתים לפני הרעש "two years before the earthquake", and προ τριων μηνων του τρυγητου in Am 4:7, translating בעוד שלשה חדשים לקציר "when there were yet three months to the harvest".) Since the Passover began from the beginning of the Passover day, it would seem quite unlikely that the Passover day was one of the six days. Rather, all six days preceded the Passover day. The day when the Lord was crucified is called παρασκευη του πασχα "the preparation day of the Passover" in Jn 19:14. Understanding the preparation day to be the day preceding the Passover and that the Lord was crucified on a Friday, it follows that the first of the six days began on a Saturday at sunset. Thus, the Lord came to Bethany either that Saturday, in the evening, or on the Sunday that followed. In the chronology presented in this document, if the Lord came to Bethany Saturday, he had two more days of teaching at the time of Lk 21:37, but only one more day of teaching if he came Sunday. While Lk 21:37 might refer to both preceding and subsequent days, it seems clear that the possibility that Jesus came to Bethany Saturday fits better the plural τας ημερας "the days" of Lk 21:37.

Location: Bethany.

Time: Saturday, March 28, AD 33.

Index

Mary, the sister of Martha, anoints the feet of Jesus (Jn 12:2-8)

There are several occasions in which Mary anointed the Lord Jesus. Earlier in the ministry of Jesus, he was anointed in Lk 7:38. Based on Jn 11:2, it can be concluded that Mary was the one who anointed the Lord in Lk 7:38. At the end of his ministry, he was anointed first in Jn 12:3, and then at the time of Mt 26:6-13 and Mk 14:3-9. The feet of Jesus were anointed in Jn 12:3 and in Lk 7:38, while his head in Mt 26:7 and Mk 14:3. In the occasion of Jn 12:2-8 as well as in the occasion of Mt 26:6-13 and Mk 14:3-9, there were objections to what Mary did. In both instances, the Lord spoke in her defense. Among other things, he stated in both occasions that "ye always have the poor with you" (Jn 12:8, Mt 26:11, Mk 14:7). He also said in Jn 12:7 that Mary had kept the perfume for the day of his burial. Thus, the reason she had kept it was that God had reserved that perfume for the day of burial of Jesus. Therefore, God did not mean it to be used for the poor, but for Jesus. It could also be concluded that Mary did not use the entire jar of perfume in Jn 12:2-8, but only some of it. Now the Lord did not repeat the statement of Jn 12:7 in the other occasion; he used different words in Mt 26:12 and Mk 14:8. Moreover, while Judas mentioned 300 denarii in Jn 12:5, the disciples mentioned a value in excess of 300 denarii in Mk 14:5. This would point out to the fact that Mary used another perfume in Mt 26:6-13 and Mk 14:3-9. Indeed, Mk 14:3 states explicitly that she broke a flask, which indicates that she took an unopened flask of perfume.

Location: Bethany.

Time: Saturday, March 28, AD 33.

Index

The people find out that Jesus is in Bethany (Jn 12:9-11)

Location: Bethany.

Time: Saturday, March 28, AD 33.

Index

Many go out to meet Jesus (Jn 12:12-13)

As stated in Jn 12:18, the people came because they had heard about Jesus raising Lazarus from the dead.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

Jesus sends two disciples to bring him a colt (Mt 21:1-6, Mk 11:1-6, Lk 19:29-34)

The location is stated in Mt 21:1, where we read that he sent the two disciples when he entered Bethphage. Understanding εις βηθφαγη και βηθανιαν "to Bethphage and Bethany" (Mk 11:1, Lk 19:29) to refer to a place associated with both Bethphage and Bethany, we understand that as the Lord drew near to that place (Mk 11:1, Lk 19:29), after he entered Bethphage (Mt 21:1), he sent the two disciples. Since he was already in Bethphage, the phrases εισπορευομενοι εις αυτην "entering into it" (Mk 11:2) and εν η εισπορευομενοι "in which entering" (Lk 19:30) imply that the Lord did not sent the two disciples to Bethphage.

Location: Bethphage.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus rides the colt as he approaches Jerusalem (Mt 21:7, Mk 11:7, Lk 19:35, Jn 12:14-16)

In Mt 21:7, since the donkey and the colt were together, the statement επεκαθισεν επανω αυτων "he sat on them" only implies that he sat on one of them, that is, on the colt (Mk 11:7, Jn 12:14).

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The multitudes glorify Jesus as he approaches Jerusalem (Mt 21:8-9, Mk 11:8-10, Lk 19:36-40, Jn 12:17-19)

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus weeps over Jerusalem (Lk 19:41-44)

While the Lord predicted here the destruction of Jerusalem, he also spoke about the destruction of the temple in Mt 24:1-2, Mk 13:1-2, and Lk 21:5-6.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The whole city is stirred (Mt 21:10-11)

Location: In Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord goes to the temple (Mt 21:12a, Mk 11:11a, Lk 19:45a)

Location: In Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord cleanses the temple (Mt 21:12b-13, Lk 19:45b-46)

This cleansing of the temple should not be confused with the one that took place one day later (Mk 11:15-17). Another cleansing of the temple took place three years earlier, in Jn 2:14-22.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord heals the blind and the lame. Children praise Him. (Mt 21:14-16)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

Greek converts seek to meet Jesus (Jn 12:20-22)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

The Lord speaks about his sacrifice (Jn 12:23-27)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

God the Father answers audibly (Jn 12:28-33)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

The crowd continues in unbelief (Jn 12:34-41)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

Many rulers among the believers (Jn 12:42-43)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

The Lord responds to unbelievers (Jn 12:44-50)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

The Lord leaves Jerusalem and lodges in Bethany (Mt 21:17, Mk 11:11b)

The Lord departed from the temple in the evening (Mk 11:11). He lodged in Bethany (Mt 21:17).

Time: Sunday, March 29, AD 33.

Index

"And he was teaching daily in the temple ..." (Lk 19:47-48)

Index

A fruitless fig tree is cursed (Mk 11:12-14)

See the note below on Mt 21:18-22.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

A fruitless fig tree by the road is cursed. It withers immediately. (Mt 21:18-22)

There are several indications that the accounts in Mt 21:18-22 and Mk 11:12-14 correspond to different occasions. In Mk 11:12, the Lord went to a fig tree that was at some distance from the road, while in Mt 21:19 he went to a fig tree by the road. Moreover, the Lord did not speak exactly the same words in Mk 11:14 and Mt 21:19. Most importantly, the fig tree did not wither right away in Mk 11:12-14, but it withered immediately in Mt 21:18-22. Furthermore, in Mt 21:18-22 the Lord taught immediately about the importance of faith, while in the case of Mk 11:12-14, he taught about it one day later, in Mk 11:20-26. Thus, on the following day, when the disciples noticed that the fig tree of Mk 11:12 had withered, the Lord had the opportunity to reinforce the lesson that he taught in Mt 21:21-22. The fact that the Lord taught twice on the same topic emphasizes the importance of the topic. There are various passages showing that an unfruitful life does not please the Lord, such as Mt 3:10, 7:19, Lk 13:6-9, and Jn 15:1-8. The Lord used the miracles of the fig trees to testify to this truth and to teach that one bears fruit by faith (Mt 21:21-22, Mk 11:20-24). Note that the fig trees were supposed to have some fruit, since the common fig tree has two crops per year. The trees were supposed to have some unripe figs of the first crop (brebas). The fact that the figs were not supposed to be ripe could be inferred from Mk 11:13, stating that it was not the season of figs. The statement that it was not the season of figs is understood here to explain why a person going to the fig trees should have found some fruit. If figs were in season, the fruit could have been already picked by others.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

Jesus cleanses the temple one more time (Mk 11:15-17)

See the note above on Mt 21:12b-13 and Lk 19:45b-46.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The scribes and the chief priests seek to kill Jesus (Mk 11:18)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The chief priests and the elders ask Jesus about his authority (Mt 21:23-27)

There are three accounts in which the religious leaders ask the Lord about his authority: Mt 21:23-27, Mk 11:27-33, and Lk 20:1-8. While these three accounts are very similar, there are several factors that indicate that they correspond to three different occasions. One of the most obvious factor is that while the accounts are followed in each case by the Parable of the Tenants, this parable was spoken in each instance somewhat differently. There are other factors as well. In Mt 21:23 and Lk 20:1 the Lord was asked about his authority while he was teaching, but in Mk 11:27 the religious leaders came to him while he was walking. Thus, Mt 21:23-27 and Lk 20:1-8 took place in the presence of the crowds, while in Mk 11:27-33 there were probably not as many people present. In Mk 11:27 and Lk 20:1 the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders were present, but in Mt 21:23 only the chief priests and the elders are mentioned. The tense of διελογιζοντο "they were reasoning" in Mt 21:25 and ελογιζοντο "they were reasoning" in Mk 11:31 is the imperfect, indicating that the leaders were deliberating how to answer Jesus. However, the aorist tense is used for συνελογισαντο in Lk 20:5, which could be translated either "they reasoned" or "they had reasoned". This could imply that they did not deliberate at all at that time and that Lk 20:5-6 describes a previous deliberation. The reaction of the leaders to the words of the Lord was not exactly the same in all three accounts. In Mt 21:31, 41, they were answering the questions of the Lord, as they were probably hearing the parables for the first time, and so they did not realize immediately that the parables were about them. The account in Mark does not mention any reply to the Parable of the Tenants, while the account in Luke mentions the exclamation μη γενοιτο "May it not be!" (Lk 20:16), indicating that by this time they knew what the parable meant.

A question that might arise is why the chief priests asked Jesus three times the same question. It seems obvious that they felt they had a good plan on how to attack him if he answered directly their question. When they asked him this question the second time, Jesus was walking (Mk 11:27), so probably there were not many who could have heard them speak with Jesus. They probably hoped that in this context Jesus would answer differently their question. Probably that in the same hope, they asked him again in Lk 20:1-8. It could be noticed also that since the scribes are not mentioned in Mt 21:23, the group of people who asked Jesus about his authority was not exactly the same in each of the three instances. Clearly, some who talked with him in Mk 11:27-33 and Lk 20:1-8 had not heard him in Mt 21:23-27. As for the answer of the Lord, the fact that he answered in three different occasions the same way emphasizes their inability to answer him.

Another question that might arise is why the Lord spoke three times the Parable of the Tenants. The parable appears first in Mt 21:33-44, where it was spoken to the chief priests and the elders. This happened, apparently, in the presence of the people. The parable appears again in Mk 12:1-11, where it was spoken also to the scribes, not just to the chief priests and the elders. Finally, the parable appears again in Lk 20:9-18, where it was spoken to the people in the presence of the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. We conclude that in each of the three occasions there were some people who had not heard the parable and who needed to hear it.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Two Sons (Mt 21:28-32)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Tenants (Mt 21:33-44)

See the note above on Mt 21:23-27.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

Fearing the crowds, the chief priests do not arrest Jesus (Mt 21:45-46)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The Parable of the Wedding Feast (Mt 22:1-14)

The context of the first verse indicates that the parable was spoken to the chief priests and the Pharisees.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The Pharisees take counsel against Jesus (Mt 22:15)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 22:15 indicates that this happened soon after Jesus spoke the Parable of the Wedding Feast. Now, in Mt 22:23 we read εν εκεινη τη ημερα "in that day". Thus, the question about taxes took place on the same day as the question of the Sadducees about resurrection. Now Mt 22:46 mentions that after that time his enemies no longer dared to ask him questions. This indicates that Mk 11:11-12:34 and Lk 19:45-20:40 took place by the time of Mt 22:46. Note that Mk 11:11-12:34 mentions explicitly three days: the day of the triumphal entry (Mk 11:11), the following day (Mk 11:12), and the next day (Mk 11:20). Moreover, there seems to be no reason to assume that Mk 11:20-12:34 took place over the course of more than one day. Then, if Mt 22:46 is associated with Mk 12:34, it follows that Mt 21:10-22:46 covers a period of three days. Considering Mt 21:10-17, it seems most natural to assume that this entire passage took place during the triumphal entry day. Then, since the day following Mt 21:17 is mentioned explicitly in Mt 21:18, it follows that the third day must begin somewhere in between Mt 21:18 and Mt 22:46. Since Mt 22:1 fits well the context of its previous verses, it would seem unnatural to assume that it took place on another day. A more likely possibility is that Mt 22:16 took place the day after Mt 22:15. This possibility is assumed in this chronology.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

In the evening the Lord goes out of the city (Mk 11:19)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Monday, March 30, AD 33.

Index

The fig tree is found withered (Mk 11:20-26)

See the note above on Mt 21:18-22.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The chief priests, the scribes, and the elders ask Jesus about his authority (Mk 11:27-33)

The chief priests, the scribes, and the elders came to Jesus while he was walking in the temple. The chief priests and the elders had asked Jesus about this also on the previous day (Mt 21:23-27). Perhaps they wanted to see how he would answer this question when he was not teaching before large crowds. Since Mt 21:23-27 does not mention the elders, it is clear that not all who came to Jesus in Mk 11:27 were present at the time of Mt 21:23-27. See also the note above on Mt 21:23-27.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The Lord speaks to them the Parable of the Tenants (Mk 12:1-11)

In the context, the Lord spoke the parable to the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders who came to him. They came to him while he was walking in the temple, so probably not many in the crowds could hear well what they spoke with Jesus. While in Mt 21 they answered when Jesus asked questions at the end of the parables (Mt 21:31, 41), it would appear that they did not answer this time (Mk 12:9), See also the note above on Mt 21:23-27.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The Lord teaches the people. The chief priests, the scribes, and the elders are present. (Lk 20:1)

The passage indicates that this took place in one of those days, without stating explicitly which. By associating Lk 20:19-26 with Mk 12:12-17, it follows that this took place two days after Lk 19:46.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

They ask him again about his authority (Lk 20:2-8)

They had asked Jesus before about this, once in Mt 21:23-27, while he was teaching, and once in Mk 11:27-33, apparently in a context in which not many people could hear them speak. This time Jesus was before the crowds, and perhaps they hoped that somehow he would say something different and give them something that they could use against him. However, Jesus answered the same way. The fact that Jesus answered them in three different occasions the same way emphasizes their inability to answer him. The tense of the verb in οι δε συνελογισαντο προς εαυτους "But they reasoned among themselves" would allow also a translation "But they had reasoned among themselves". Thus, the tense of the verb does not imply that they reasoned one more time about how to answer the question. Rather, Lk 20:5-6 could refer to their earlier reasoning in Mk 11:31-32. Indeed, it is interesting to compare the tense of συνελογισαντο in Lk 20:5, which is the aorist, with the tense of διελογιζοντο in Mt 21:25 and ελογιζοντο in Mk 11:31, which is the imperfect. See also the note above on Mt 21:23-27.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The Lord speaks the Parable of the Tenants to the people (Lk 20:9-18)

The Lord spoke this parable also earlier, in Mt 21:33-44 and Mk 12:1-11. See the note on Mt 21:23-27.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The chief priests and the scribes seek to arrest Jesus (Mk 12:12, Lk 20:19)

The tense of εζητουν "they were seeking" in Mk 12:12 could be understood as indicating a specific time when they were seeking to arrest Jesus. Thus, given that Mk 12:13-17 and Lk 20:20-26 are parallel, Mk 12:12 would appear to correspond to Lk 20:19.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

"Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" (Mt 22:16-22, Mk 12:13-17, Lk 20:20-26)

Lk 20:26 emphasizes that this took place before the crowds.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Sadducees ask Jesus about the resurrection (Mt 22:23-33, Mk 12:18-27, Lk 20:27-39)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

A Pharisee asks about the greatest commandment (Mt 22:34-40, Mk 12:28-34a)

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus asks the Pharisees why David calls the Messiah Lord (Mt 22:41-45)

The Lord spoke on this topic also later, while teaching in the temple (Mk 12:35-37, Lk 20:41-44).

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord silences all his opponents (Mt 22:46, Mk 12:34b, Lk 20:40)

By the time of Mt 22:34, the Sadducees were silenced. At this point, however, all opponents of the Lord were silenced. In Lk 20:40, the tense of the form ετολμων is the imperfect. This form is found in ουκετι δε ετολμων "And they were no longer daring", and its tense indicates a time when they were no longer asking the Lord any questions. There is no need to assume that Lk 20:40 happened immediately after Lk 20:39. Rather, Lk 20:40 would correspond to Mt 22:46 and Mk 12:34b, which happened some time after Lk 20:39.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord warns against the scribes and the Pharisees (Mt 23:1-7)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 23:1 indicates that this passage took place soon after Mt 22:45. The Lord spoke on this topic also in Mk 12:38-39, Lk 11:43, 20:46..While Lk 11:43 took place in a different occasion, it might not be immediately obvious why Mt 23:6-7 did not take place exactly at the same time as Mk 12:38-39 and Lk 20:46. To see this, we could note a difference of context, First, Mk 12:38-39 and Lk 20:46 are part of an explicit warning of the Lord against certain scribes. However, Mt 23:6-7 is part of a passage that explains why such scribes and Pharisees did not give a good example to the people; we read, "do not do according to their works; for they say, and do not do" (Mt 23:3). The Byzantine text provides more evidence, as it has in Mt 23:13, "Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye devour widows' houses ... ". While this verse resembles Mk 12:40 and Lk 20:47, it does not follow immediately after Mt 23:6-7 and it addresses directly the scribes and the Pharisees. This provides additional evidence that Mk 12:38-40 and Lk 20:46-47 were not spoken at the time of Mt 23. While in Mt 23 the Lord spoke in some detail about the sins of the scribes and Pharisees, at the time of Mk 12:38-40 and Lk 20:46-47 the Lord reinforced this message, reminding the hearers of what he spoke earlier in Mt 23.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

True and false ways contrasted (Mt 23:8-12)

We read that "the greatest among you shall be your servant" (Mt 23:11). The Lord spoke on this topic also in Mt 20:26-27, Mk 10:43-44, and Lk 22:26. The saying that "whoever shall exalt himself shall be humbled, and whoever shall humble himself shall be exalted" (Mt 23:12) has been emphasized by the Lord, as he stated it also in two other occasions, in Lk 14:11 and in Lk 18:14.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The Lord warns the scribes and the Pharisees (Mt 23:13-39)

The Lord spoke similar words earlier in Lk 11:39-52. Additionally, it could be noted that the Lord spoke the words of Mt 23:37-39 earlier in Lk 13:34-35. Finally, considering the Byzantine text of Mt 23:13, "Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye devour widows' houses ... ", the Lord spoke again on this topic later, in Mk 12:40 and Lk 20:47. See the note on Mt 23:1-7..

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

While teaching, Jesus asks why David calls the Messiah Lord (Mk 12:35-37, Lk 20:41-44)

The text of Lk 20:41 is, ειπε δε προς αυτους πως λεγουσιν τον χριστον υιον δαβιδ ειναι "But he said about them, ''How do they say that Christ is the son of David?'". In the context of Lk 20:39-40, αυτους "them" refers to the scribes (that is, to teachers of the law). Moreover, it seems obvious that the scribes are the subject of λεγουσιν "they say", as could be seen also from Mk 12:35. Therefore, since the Lord mentions the scribes at the third person and αυτους "them" refers to the scribes, the phrase προς αυτους is understood here with the meaning "about them", not "to them". Other passages in which προς αυτους is used with the meaning "about them" include Lk 20:19 and Mk 12:12. Note that this is not the first occasion in which the Lord asked this question. The Lord had asked earlier the Pharisees the same question in Mt 22:41-45.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord warns against the scribes (Mk 12:38-40, Lk 20:45-47)

The Lord said, προσεχετε απο των γραμματεων των θελοντων περιπατειν εν στολαις και φιλουντων ασπασμους εν ταις αγοραις ... "Beware of the scribes who like to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets ... " (Lk 20:46). In the original language, the text is not a warning against all scribes, but against the scribes seeking honor for themselves. The Lord has used scribes in his work, for he said, ιδου εγω αποστελλω προς υμας ... γραμματεις "behold, I send to you ... scribes" (Mt 23:34). See also the note on Mt 23:1-7.

Location: In the temple.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

About offerings (Mk 12:41-44, Lk 21:1-4)

Location: In the temple, near the treasury.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord predicts the destruction of the temple (Mt 24:1-2, Mk 13:1-2, Lk 21:5-6)

A close examination of the three passages leads to the conclusion that the Lord emphasized the future destruction of the temple by declaring it three times, possibly in this order: first in Mk 13:2, then in Lk 21:6, then in Mt 24:2. A related passage is Lk 19:43-44, in which the Lord predicted that Jerusalem would be thoroughly demolished.

Mt 24:1 indicates that this happened after the Lord left the temple, while he was departing; see also Mk 13:1. Since the Lord went to the Mount of Olives (Mt 24:3, Mk 13:3), it would appear that this passage took place while he was going there.

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Concerning the time of the end (Lk 21:7-11)

The question regarding the time when not one stone would be left on another was answered by considering both the destruction of Jerusalem (Lk 21:20-24).and the events of the end that precede the return of the Lord. While the temple complex was destroyed when Jerusalem was conquered, whatever will remain from it until the return of the Lord will also be overturned. The temple that will be after the Lord returns (Eze 40:1-44:3, 47:1-3) will apparently not need any of the old foundations or structures. We infer that these will not be restored, but removed and replaced.

The prediction of the Lord about the destruction of the temple must have been followed quickly by the question of when it would happen. Note that Lk 21:7 fits well right after Lk 21:6, but not so well after a time interval in which the Lord and his disciples would walk from the temple to the Mount of Olives (Mt 24:3, Mk 13:3). There is no indication in Lk 21:6-7 of a significant amount of time between Lk 21:6 and Lk 21:7. On the contrary, note the word ουν "therefore" in Lk 21:7, implying a strong connection between Lk 21:6 and Lk 21:7. Note also the word ταυτα "these things" in Lk 21:7, indicating that not much time had elapsed between Lk 21:6 and Lk 21:7. The word ταυτα "these things" appears also in Mt 24:3 and Mk 13:3, but this should not be surprising if Jesus spoke Lk 13:7-36 on the way to the Mount of Olives; then in Mt 24:3 and Mk 13:3-4, the disciples simply asked Jesus to speak more on this topic. Now, the alternative that Lk 21:5-6 happened just before they arrived to their destination on the Mount of Olives seems less likely. The simplest explanation of the text appears to be that Lk 21:5-6 happened at the time of Mt 24:1-2, while they were departing from the temple, then the disciples replied with the question of Lk 21:7, and then the Lord answered immediately by speaking Lk 21:8-36. The phrase τοτε ελεγεν "at that time he was saying" in Lk 21:10 may imply a short interval of time between Lk 21:9 and Lk 21:10. This could indicate that Lk 21:9 was followed by other words of the Lord that were not recorded, or that the Lord interrupted his discourse after Lk 21:9, perhaps, due to the nature of the way to the Mount of Olives.

In this chronology, Lk 21:7-36 was not spoken at the same time as Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:3-27. This was justified above by showing that Lk 21:7-36 took place after Jesus and the disciples went out from the temple, on the way to the Mount of Olives. Another way to justify it is by noticing that Lk 21:7-36 differs from Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:3-27 in several respects. There are also similarities, but these could be explained by assuming that in Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:4-37 the Lord desired to reinforce the topics that he had covered earlier in Lk 21:7-36. Note that similarities between two passages do not imply that the passages took place at the same time. For example, though Lk 17:22-37 has several similarities to Mt 24:4-51, it is obvious that they did not take place at the same time, for the Lord was not even in Jerusalem at the time of Lk 17. Comparing Lk 21:7-36 with Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:3-27, we could note that the beginning of the three passages is very similar. However, the subsequent verses either address different topics or address the same topics with more or less different words. Some notable differences are as follows: Lk 21:12-19 is quite different from Mk 13:9-13; while Lk 21:23 is similar to Mt 24:19 and Mk 13:17, the context is quite different; the parable of the fig tree of Lk 21:29-31 is stated somewhat differently in Mt 24:32-33 and Mk 13:28-29. Considering also the verses of Lk 21:7-36 that are similar to the verses of Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:4-37, there are some different details that provide additional support to the interpretation that the Lord did not speak Lk 21:7-36 at the same time as Mt 24:4-51 and Mk 13:4-37. First, in Lk 21:8 we have βλεπετε μη πλανηθητε "see that ye are not deceived", but βλεπετε μη τις υμας πλανηση "see that no one deceives you" in Mt 24:4 and Mk 13:5. Second, we find επι των νεφελων "on the clouds" in Mt 24:30 and εν νεφελαις "in the clouds" in Mk 13:26, but εν νεγελη "in a cloud" in Lk 21:27. (While Mt 24:30 and Mk 13:26 indicate that the Lord will come with the clouds of heaven, Lk 21:27 adds the detail that he will be in one of the clouds when he comes.)

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The Lord predicts that believers will be persecuted (Lk 21:12-19)

Other passages in which the Lord spoke on this topic are Mt 10:17-23, Lk 12:11-12, and Mk 13:9-13. Related is also Mt 24:9-10, which is in the context of the time of the end.

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

An exhortation to escape Jerusalem at the time of its fall (Lk 21:20-24)

The Lord predicted the fall of Jerusalem also in Lk 19:43-44. In Lk 21:23, the distress of those times is described with the words "woe to the pregnant women and to those who are nursing infants in those days!". The Lord used the same words later, when speaking about the distress of the time of the end (Mt 24:19, Mk 13:17).

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

About the second coming of the Lord (Lk 21:25-27)

Mt 24:29-30 and Mk 13:24-26 are related to this passage.

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The signs of the end will be clearly recognizable (Lk 21:28-33)

Mt 24:32-35 and Mk 13:28-31 are related to this passage..

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

"Watch ... praying that ye may be worthy to escape ..." (Lk 21:34-36)

True believers will escape the final time of distress by means of the rapture. At that time there will be also people who will not be fully committed to the Lord. This passage urges them to seek the Lord and pray so that the Lord would help them get right with him.

Location: From the temple to the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday, March 31, AD 33.

Index

The routine of the Lord during the last week (Lk 21:37-38)

The plural of the words ημερας "days" and νυκτας "nights" indicates at least two more days and two more nights from the time of Lk 21:36 to the time when Jesus was arrested.

Location: Jerusalem and its vicinity.

Index

The disciples ask Jesus about the time of the end (Mt 24:3, Mk 13:3-4)

At first, the disciples asked about the time when the temple would be destroyed (Lk 21:7). Since the answer of the Lord in Lk 21:8-36 included not only details about the fall of Jerusalem (Lk 21:20-24), but also details about the time of the end, the question that they asked at this point was about the time of the end.

In view of Lk 21:37, we could conclude that Mt 24:3 and Mk 13:3-4 took place late in the day. See also the note on Lk 21:7-11. As for the location, we could note that the city and the temple were visible from the Mount of Olives. While Mt 24:3 indicates that the Lord sat on the Mount of Olives, from the phrase εις το ορος των ελαιων "towards the Mount of Olives" (Mk 13:3) we could understand that he sat facing the Mount of Olives. If the Lord was on the side of the mountain that faced the city, the disciples who were in front of him were facing the city and the temple. It may be that they were able to see the city and the temple while the Lord was answering their question.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

Signs of the time of the end (Mt 24:4-13, Mk 13:5-8)

There are several related passages. The warnings against impostors and false prophets in Mt 24:4-5 and Mk 13:5-6 appear also in Lk 17:23-24 and Lk 21:8. These warnings are repeated in Mt 24:23-24 and Mk 13:21-22 for those who will face the great tribulation. A description of the beginning of the "birth pains" appears in all of Mt 24:6-8, Mk 13:7-8, and Lk 21:9-11. While Mt 24:9-10 warns of persecution at the beginning of the "birth pains", Lk 21:12 warns of persecution preceding the "birth pains". Related is also Mk 13:9, which warned those present about persecution that they themselves would endure (note εαυτους "yourselves" in βλεπετε δε υμεις εαυτους "watch out for yourselves"). Another related passage speaking about persecution is Mt 10:17-18. Now the statement that "ye will be hated by all nations" in Mt 24:9, can remind us of "ye will be hated by all" in Mt 10:22, Mk 13:13, and Lk 21:17. The Lord stated that "the one who endures to the end will be saved" in all of Mt 10:22, Mt 24:13, and Mk 13:13, in each case in the context of persecution.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

The Lord warns the disciples that they themselves will be persecuted (Mk 13:9)

See the note above on Mt 24:4-13 and Mk 13:5-8.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

Signs of the time of the end. Instructions. (Mt 24:14-31, Mk 13:10-27)

Related passages are as follows. Mt 10:23 is related to Mt 24:14 and Mk 13:10 in that all three verses relate the preaching of the good news with the time of the end. However, a close examination of these three verses reveals that they are not covering exactly the same topic. Mk 13:10 states that the gospel must first be preached to all nations, while Mt 24:14 adds that the end will come after the gospel will be preached for a testimony to all nations. The phrase εις μαρτουριον "for a testimony" indicates that the Lord did not speak about the same thing in Mk 13:10 and Mt 24:14. While Mk 13:10 is about preaching the good news so that people might be saved, Mt 24:14 is about preaching to people who resist the good news and need a testimony that they could remember at a later time, so that they might respond to it. As for Mt 10:23, it states that "ye will not finish going through the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes." So this verse is about preaching during the time of the end, before the second coming of the Lord (cf. Rev 14:6-11).

The Lord said in Mk 13:11 that persecuted believers should not worry about how to answer when they are arrested. The Lord spoke about it also in Mt 10:19-20, Lk 12:11-12, and Lk 21:14-15. In Mk 13:12 the Lord warned that "a brother will betray a brother to death, and a father his child", and "children will rise up against their parents and put them to death". He spoke on this topic also in Mt 10:21 and Lk 21:16. In Mk 13:13 we read that "ye will be hated by all" and "the one who endures to the end will be saved". The Lord spoke these things also in Mt 10:22, with exactly the same words as in Mk 13:13; related are also Lk 21:17 and Mt 24:9.

When the abomination that causes desolation will be set up, those in Judea will have to flee to the mountains (Mt 24:16, Mk 13:14). The Lord used the same words to urge those who lived in Judea at the time of the siege of Jerusalem to flee to the mountains (Lk 21:21). The words of the Lord in Mt 24:17-18 and Mk 13:15-16 indicate that there will not be much time to flee. In a different context, similar words appear in Lk 17:31, indicating that the rapture of the believers will take place quickly. When predicting distress in the land at the time of the siege of Jerusalem, the Lord said, "Woe to the women who are pregnant and to those who are nursing infants in those days" (Lk 21:23). He used the same words when speaking about distress at the time of the abomination that causes desolation (Mt 24:19, Mk 13:17). He added though that the tribulation of the end time will be more severe than anything else that the world will have experienced (Mt 24:21, Mk 13:19). There will be impostors and false prophets during the tribulation (Mt 24:23-27, Mk 13:21-23) as before it (Mt 24:4-5, 11, Mk 13:5-6). The Lord spoke about this also in Lk 17:23-24, 21:8. In particular, Lk 17:24 is similar to Mt 24:27, declaring the fact that the coming of the Lord will be very obvious. The Lord used the saying "wherever the dead body is, there the eagles will be gathered together" (cf. Job 39:30) in both Mt 24:28 and Lk 17:37. We can understand from this that false prophets will come wherever there is the opportunity to deceive.

Related to Mt 24:29 and Mk 13:24-25 is Lk 21:25, which mentions signs in the sun, moon, and stars. Great signs from heaven are also mentioned in the context of the beginning of the "birth pains" (Lk 21:11). The Lord spoke about his coming with the clouds of heaven in Mt 24:30, Mk 13:26, and also in Lk 21:27. Related are also Mt 26:64 and Mk 14:62.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

The signs of the end will be clearly recognizable (Mt 24:32-36, Mk 13:28-32)

The Lord spoke about it also in Lk 21:28-33, where he used similar words and a similar parable. This time, however, he mentioned also that no one knows the day or the hour, excepting the Father (Mt 24:36, Mk 13:32). It seems likely that the Lord stated this in response to the question of the disciples in Mt 24:3 and Mk 13:4.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

About the rapture (Mt 24:37-41)

The Lord spoke on this topic also in Lk 17:30-35.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

Be ready! (Mt 24:42-51, Mk 13:33-37)

In the context of prophecy, the second person addresses people living at the time when the prophecy is fulfilled. However, when the Lord stated that "what I say to you I say to all" (Mk 13:37), he indicated that he desires all to watch, not just those who will live during the time of the end. Now the Lord spoke the words of Mt 24:45-51 also in Lk 12:42-46.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index  Sequence

The Parable of the Ten Virgins (Mt 25:1-13)

In this parable the Lord continues to emphasize that the generation of the end time should be ready for him (Mt 24:42-51), or else they will not be taken in the rapture (Mt 24:37-41).

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index

The Parable of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30)

This parable continues the topic of Mt 24:45-51 by emphasizing that those who truly serve the Lord are those who are right with him. While the previous parable emphasized that one should be ready for the Lord, this parable shows that those who are ready serve him. Just as Mt 24:45-51, this parable indicates that each one will receive according to his service at the coming of the Lord . The Parable of the Talents is related to the Parable of the Ten Minas in Lk 19:11-27, which was spoken in Jericho, when Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. As we read in Lk 19:11, the Lord spoke the parable of the minas because many thought that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately..

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index

The Son of Man will judge the nations at his coming (Mt 25:31-46)

The Parable of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30) illustrates the point that each one will receive according to his work at the coming of the Lord. After this parable, the Lord went on to speak about how he will judge the nations when he returns.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: Tuesday evening.

Index

Jesus warns one more time that he will be betrayed (Mt 26:1-2)

The Lord stated here that μετα δυω ημερας το πασχα γινεται "after two days the Passover day begins". Note that in a phrase of the form "after n days", where n is an integer, "n days" is understood to denote a continuous interval of time involving n days. The first day is the day containing the reference point, where the reference in Mt 26:1 is the time when the words were spoken. The interval of time denoted by "n days" covers partially the first day, beginning from the reference point and extending to the end of the first day, then it covers fully the next n-2 days, and partially or fully the last day. So in Mt 26:1 "two days" denotes the interval beginning with the time the words were spoken and ending at some point on the following day. Since the verb γινομαι "to become" is used and not ειμι "to be", Mt 26:1 indicates that at some point on the following day the Passover began. However, since the Passover began when the 13th day of Abib ended and the 14th day began, the interval of "two days" covers fully the second day, indicating that the Passover began at the end of the day that followed the day when Mt 26:1 was spoken. So Mt 26:1 was spoken on the 12th of the month of Abib. See also the note above on Lk 21:37-38 for additional evidence that Mt 26:1 was on the 12th of the month of Abib. Now if Mt 26:1 had the verb ειμι "to be" instead of γινομαι "to become", the interpretation of "two days" would be different. We find this in Mk 14:1, stating ην δε το πασχα και τα αζυμα μετα δυο ημερας "Now the Passover and the days of unleavened bread were after two days." Here, "two days" denotes a time interval that can end at any point during the day following the time of Mk 14:1. Wherever the ending point was, the day in which the interval ended was the Passover day and the first day of unleavened bread. Thus, Mk 14:1 was spoken during the 13th day of the month of Abib.

In this chronology, the 14th day of Abib began Thursday at sunset and ended Friday at sunset. The Passover day was on the 14th of Abib (Lev 23:5). Note that το πασχα "the Passover day" should not be confused with η εορτη των αζυμςν "the Feast of Unleavened Bread" (Lk 22:1), which began on the following day, on the 15th of Abib (Lev 23:6). The Feast of Unleavened Bread was also known as the Passover feast (Lk 22:1), and is denoted by η εορτη του πασχα "the feast of the Passover" in Jn 13:1 and Lk 2:41. The Passover day was the first day of unleavened bread, that is, the first day in which nothing made with yeast could be eaten. Unleavened bread was to be eaten from the 14th of Abib until the 21st day of Abib (Ex 12:18). No yeast was to be found in any house for seven days (Ex 12:19). The seven days were the 14th, 15th, ... , and the 20th. Since the 21st day was ending at sunset, it was apparently permitted to have yeast during the 21st day, so that leavened bread might be eaten after sunset. However, since no yeast was to be found in a house during the 14th day, it follows that yeast was removed from the house by the end of the 13th day. Since no leftovers of leavened bread were to remain by the end of the 13th day, it would seem reasonable to assume that many did not cook leavened bread on that day. However, this does not make the 13th day the first day of unleavened bread, for there was nothing wrong if leftovers of leavened bread were eaten on the 13th day, or if leavened bread was cooked and no leftovers were left for the next day.

See the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to other passages in which the Lord predicted his suffering, death, and resurrection.

Location: On the Mount of Olives.

Time: The night of Tuesday to Wednesday.

Index  Sequence

The leaders take counsel to kill Jesus (Mt 26:3-5)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 26:3 indicates that this happened soon after Mt 26:1-2. Moreover, Mt 26:3 mentions that this happened in the palace of Caiaphas.

Location: In the palace of Caiaphas.

Time: The night of Tuesday to Wednesday.

Index  Sequence

The religious rulers plot to kill Jesus (Mk 14:1-2, Lk 22:1-2)

The statement of Mk 14:1 that ην δε το πασχα και το αζυμα μετα δυο ημερας "Now the Passover and the days of unleavened bread were after two days", is understood as referring not only to the Passover day, but also to the days in which bread had to be unleavened. As indicated in the note above on Mt 26:1-2, bread had to be unleavened beginning with the 14th day of the month of Abib. The 14th day began Thursday at sunset. Thus, the day of Mk 14:1-2 was the 13th of Abib. In view of Lk 21:37-38, it can be concluded that Mk 14:3-9 took place sometime after sunset. However, Mk 14:3-9 must have been after the sunset beginning the 13th day, not after the sunset ending the 13th day, for Mk 14:3-9 did not take place on the 14th day, which was the Passover day. Since Mk 14:3-9 was after the sunset beginning the 13th day, and Mk 14:1-2 happened on the 13th day before Mk 14:3-9, it follows that Mk 14:1-2 took place after sunset. As for Lk 22:1-2, it mentions the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which began on the 15th day of the month of Abib. We read, ηγγιζεν δε η εορτη των αζυμων η λεγομενη πασχα "Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread was drawing near, which is called the Passover." Since this statement was true for all days of the week preceding the 15th of Abib, and since the day of Lk 22:1-2 was not the Passover day, Lk 22:1-2 is understood to refer to the day that was nearest to the feast and was not the Passover day, that is, the 13th of Abib. Since Mk 14:10-11 corresponds to Lk 22:3-6, and both Lk 22:1-2 and Mk 14:1-2 were on the 13th day, it can be concluded that Lk 22:1-2 corresponds to Mk 14:1-2.

Time: Wednesday evening, April 1, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is anointed in the house of Simon the leper (Mt 26:6-13, Mk 14:3-9)

In view of Lk 21:37-38, we can infer that this happened in the evening. See the note above on Jn 12:2-8.

Location: In the house of Simon the leper, in Bethany.

Time: Wednesday evening, April 1, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Judas talks to the chief priests about betraying Jesus (Mt 26:14-16, Mk 14:10-11, Lk 22:3-6)

The word τοτε "then" at the beginning of Mt 26:14 indicates that Judas departed soon after the Lord spoke the words of Mt 26:13.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Wednesday evening, April 1, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus sends Peter and John to prepare the Passover meal (Mt 26:17-19, Mk 14:12-16, Lk 22:7-13)

The phrase η πρωτη των αζυμων "the first day of unleavened bread" (Mt 26:17, Mk 14:12) denotes the 14th day of the month of Abib, as indicated in the note above on Mt 26:1-2. Moreover, η ημερα των αζυμων "the day of unleavened bread" in Lk 22:7 is clearly referring to the first day of unleavened bread, since it appears in ηλθεν δε η ημερα των αζυμων "Now the day of unleavened bread came". We also read that the Passover lamb was to be killed on this day (Mk 14:12, Lk 22:7). The Passover was on the 14th day of Abib, which began at sunset. The Passover lamb had to be killed on this day in the evening (Ex 12:6). It had to be eaten that night; no leftovers could remain until the morning (Ex 12:10). However, some killed the lamb in the evening that was at the beginning of the 14th day (Lk 22:7-8), while others killed it in the evening that was at the end of the 14th day (Jn 18:28). Thus, some ate the Passover meal sometime after the sunset at the beginning of the 14th day, but others ate it one day later. Considering Lk 22:7-8, there is no need to assume much time between "And the day of unleavened bread came" in Lk 22:7, and "he sent Peter and John" in Lk 22:8. Then, we can conclude that Jesus sent the disciples soon after sunset, once the Passover day had began. The time when Jesus and the disciples reclined at the table is described with the word οψιος "late" (Mt 26:20, Mk 14:17). This word has been understood to refer to a period of time preceding the night. Since Jn 13:30 states that it was night when Judas departed, it can be concluded that it was not yet night when the supper began. By the time of Lk 22:19 and 1Co 11:23, it was night (1Co 11:23). So the supper took place during the evening and night of Thursday, the 14th day of Abib.

Location: Outside of Jerusalem.

Time: Thursday evening, April 2, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Last Supper (Mt 26:20-29, Mk 14:17-25, Lk 22:14-23, 1Co 11:23-25)

The time of the supper is considered in the note above on Mt 26:17-19, Mk 14:12-16, Lk 22:7-13.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The evening and night of Thursday, April 2.

Index  Sequence

The disciples argue about which of them is the greatest (Lk 22:24-30)

In view of Lk 22:20, this happened after the meal was over. The Lord spoke on this topic also earlier, in Mt 20:24-28 and Mk 10:41-45.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him (Lk 22:31-34)

As indicated in the note below on Lk 22:35-38, Judas was still present at this point, so this passage must have happened before Jn 13:.36-38. The Scripture records three occasions in which the Lord predicted the denials of Peter; see the note below on Mt 26:31-35 and Mk 14:27-31.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

The Lord urges his disciples to be cautious in his absence (Lk 22:35-38)

The Lord used figurative language in this passage. He did not really mean that each of them needed a sword, for he said that two (not twelve) swords were enough (Lk 22:38). It is significant that the Lord used the kind of figurative language that is not immediately understood, because this implies that one unbeliever (Judas) was still present at that time. Jesus would explain all things plainly to his disciples (Mk 4:34). He did use figurative language also later (Jn 16:25), after Judas left, but the kind of figurative language that illustrates spiritual truth and is easily understood.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus washes the feet of his disciples (Jn 13:1-17)

The Byzantine text indicates that this happened after the meal was over (Jn 13:2). The passage is introduced with the words προ δε της εορτης του πασχα "Now before the feast of the Passover" (Jn 13:1). The feast of the Passover is the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which began the next day. See the note above on Mt 26:1-2.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus warns again that he will be betrayed. Judas leaves (Jn 13:18-30)

As mentioned in Jn 13:30, it was night when Judas left. The Lord warned several times that he will be betrayed; see the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to other passages in which the Lord predicted his suffering, death, and resurrection.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"Now was the Son of Man glorified ... Love one another as I have loved you ..." (Jn 13:31-35)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus predicts again that Peter will deny him (Jn 13:36-38)

The Scripture records three occasions in which the Lord predicted that Peter would deny him. See the note below on Mt 26:31-35 and Mk 14:27-31.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"Let not your heart be troubled ..." (Jn 14:1-4)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"I am the way, the truth, and the life ... He who has seen me has seen the Father ..." (Jn 14:5-11)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"Whatever you ask in my name, this I will do" (Jn 14:12-14)

This passage as well as related passages are considered in the article Asking and Receiving.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

On true love. On the coming of the Holy Spirit. (Jn 14:15-26)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"Peace I leave with you ..." (Jn 14:27-31)

Jn 14:31 ends with " ... Rise, let us go from here". This does not mean that Jesus left the upper room immediately after Jn 14:31. Rather, this is when they got up from the table. Since it took time to prepare the meal (Mt 26:17-19, Mk 14:12-16, Lk 22:7-13), it must have taken time also to clean up everything and pack the leftovers. Leftover meat was to be burned (Ex 12:10). Since all this must have taken some time, it would appear that they departed later, at the time of Jn 18:1. An additional detail that supports this possibility appears in Mt 26:30, which states that before departing they sang a hymn. The text does not indicate any pause between Jn 14:31 and Jn 15:1, so it would seem unlikely that this is when they sang the hymn. However, there seems to be no difficulty in assuming that they sang the hymn after the Lord prayed the prayer of Jn 17. See also the note below on Mt 26:30, Mk 14:26, Lk 22:39, and Jn 18:1a.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

The True Vine (Jn 15:1-11)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

"Love one another as I have loved you" (Jn 15:12-17)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

About persecution (Jn 15:18-16:4)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

The ministry of the Holy Spirit (Jn 16:5-15)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus speaks about his death and resurrection (Jn 16:16-22)

See the note above on Mt 16:21, Mk 8:31-32a, and Lk 9:22 for references to other passages in which the Lord predicted his suffering, death, and resurrection.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

About asking the Father in the name of Jesus (Jn 16:23-28)

The article Asking and Receiving considers this topic and a number of related verses.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus predicts that the disciples will be scattered (Jn 16:29-33)

The Lord spoke about it also later in Mt 26:31 and Mk 14:27.

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus prays for himself and for his followers (Jn 17:1-26)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

Jesus and the disciples leave the upper room (Mt 26:30, Mk 14:26, Lk 22:39, Jn 18:1a)

As we read in Jn 18:1, ταυτα ειπων ο ιησους εξηλθεν συν τοις μαθηταις αυτου περαν του χειμαρρου των κεδρων οπου ην κηπος εις ον εισηλθεν αυτος και οι μαθηται αυτου "After Jesus said these things, he went out with his disciples to the region across the Kidron Valley where there was a garden, in which he and his disciples entered." While the verse does not state where Jesus departed from, the interpretation here is that he went out from the upper room. See the note above on Jn 14:27-31. Note that περαν του χειμαρρου των κεδρων "the region across the Kidron Valley" is not where Jesus departed from but where he went to. Considering other verses in which the verb εξερχομαι "to go out" is used in a similar way with adverbs, it can be seen that in Jn 19:4-5 the adverb εξω "outside" does not denote the departure point but the destination. The adverbs οθεν and εκειθεν do not provide evidence to the contrary, since the meaning of οθεν is "from which" and the meaning of εκειθεν is "from that place". (Examples in which οθεν and εκειθεν are used with εξερχομαι include Mt 12:44 and Mt 15:21.)

Location: In the upper room, in Jerusalem.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus predicts again that Peter will deny him (Mt 26:31-35, Mk 14:27-31)

The Scripture records three occasions in which the Lord predicted the denials of Peter. First in Lk 22:31-34, then in Jn 13:36-38, and then in Mt 26:31-35 and Mk 14:27-31. While Mt :26:31-35 and Mk 14:27-31 correspond to the same occasion, Mt 26:24-25 and Mk 14:30-31 are complementary, containing different statements of the Lord about the denials of Peter. Based on the phrase ο δε εκ περισσου ελεγεν "But he was saying all the more" in Mk 14:31, it can be concluded that Mt 26:34-35 preceded Mk 14:30-31. Noe that εκ περισσου "all the more" could be compared with πολλω μαλλον "all the more" in Lk 18:39, which is used to indicate that the call in Lk 18:38 was being repeated again and again. So also εκ περισσου "all the more" in Mk 14:31 indicates that Peter was repeating all the more what he stated in Mt 26:35.

The Lord used in his predictions the verb απαρνεομαι "to deny utterly" (see the Liddell-Scott lexicon). Thus, the Lord predicted emphatic denials. One way to indicate emphasis is by repeating a statement. So also here, the predicted denials of Peter are understood to refer to occasions in which Peter denied Jesus, where each occasion involved one or more instances in which Peter said that he does not know Jesus. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that the passages describing instances in which Peter denied Jesus use sometimes the weaker verb αργνεομαι "to deny", and never the stronger verb απαρνεομαι "to deny utterly". This indicates that some, if not all, denials consisted in more than one instance in which Peter denied Jesus.

The predictions of the Lord concerning the denials of Peter are as follows. In Lk 22:34 he said, ου μη φωνησει σημερον αλεκτωρ πριν η τρις απαρνηση μη ειδεναι με "the rooster shall not crow today until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me". In Jn 13:38 the Lord said, ου μη αλεκτωρ φωνησει εως ου απαρνηση με τρις "the rooster shall not crow till thou hast denied me thrice". In Mk 14:30 he said, σημερον εν τη νυκτι ταυτη πριν η δις αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με "today, during this night, before the rooster crows twice, thou shalt deny me thrice". As shown in the article on η πριν, this prediction indicated three more denials between the first rooster crowing and the second rooster crowing, and that these denials would happen shortly before the second rooster crowing. In Mt 26:34 he said, εν ταυτη τη νυκτι πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με which can be translated either "this night, before the rooster crows, thou shalt deny me thrice", or "this night, before the rooster crows thrice, thou shalt deny me". With these words the Lord predicted not only three denials before the first rooster crowing, but also that not all denials of Peter will precede the second rooster crowing. As we read in Lk 22:60, which corresponds to the time of the second rooster crowing, Peter was still speaking when a rooster was heard. This might be the fulfillment of the statement that Peter denied Jesus before the third rooster crowing, though other unrecorded denials might also be possible. See the note below on Jn 18:17 for additional comments on this topic.

As for Mt 26:31 and Mk 14:27, the Lord spoke also in Jn 16:31 about the fact that after his arrest the disciples would be scattered.

Location: On the way to Gethsemane.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

The Lord comes to Gethsemane (Mt 26:36a, Mk 14:32a, Lk 22:40a, Jn 18:1b)

Location: Gethsemane.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

The Lord prays (Mt 26:36b-46, Mk 14:32b-42, Lk 22:40b-46)

Location: Gethsemane.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

The Lord is arrested (Mt 26:47-56, Mk 14:43-52, Lk 22:47-53, Jn 18:2-12)

Location: Gethsemane.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is taken to the high priest (Mt 26:57, Mk 14:53, Lk 22:54a)

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is led to Annas first (Jn 18:13-14)

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter and another disciple come to the palace of the high priest (Mt 26:58a, Mk 14:54a, Lk 22:54b, Jn 18:15-16)

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus (Jn 18:17)

As mentioned in the note above on Mt 26:31-35 and Mk 14:27-31, the Lord predicted three denials before the rooster was heard the first time, and three more denials before the rooster was heard the second time. There was also one denial between the second and the third rooster crowing. Each denial corresponded to an occasion in which Peter stated at least once that he does not know Jesus. The occasions in which Peter denied Jesus are as follows.

1.

Jn 18:17

The girl who was the doorkeeper asked Peter whether he was a disciple of Jesus. Peter denies it.

2.

Mt 26:69-70, Mk 14:66-68, Lk 22:56-57

A servant girl tells Peter that he is one of the disciples of Jesus (Mt 26:69, Mk 14:66-67). Peter claims that he does not understand what she says (Mt 26:70, Mk 14:68). She tells those standing by that he was with Jesus (Lk 22:56). Peter claims that he does not know Jesus (Lk 22:57).

3.

Lk 22:58, Jn 18:25-27

Speaking to Peter, a man says that Peter was one of those who were with Jesus (Lk 22:58). The man was speaking for himself and for others that were with him, and they were not stating this with confidence, but as a probing question (Jn 18:25). Peter denies. A man tells Peter that he saw him in the garden with Jesus (Jn 18:26). Peter denies.

A rooster crows (Mk 14:68, Jn 18:27).

4.

Mt 26:71-72

A woman tells those standing by that Peter had been with Jesus. Peter denies with an oath.

5.

Mk 14:69-70a

The servant girl tells those standing by that Peter was with Jesus. Peter denies.

6.

Lk 22:59-60a, Mt 26:73-74, Mk 14:70b-71

A man tells those standing by that Peter was with Jesus (Lk 22:59). Peter claims he does not understand. Those standing by confront Peter (Mt 26:73, Mk 14:70). Peter swears that he does not know Jesus.

A rooster crows again (Mt 26:74, Mk 14:72, Lk 22:60).

7.

Lk 22:60b

Peter was still speaking when the rooster crowed the second time. The rooster must have crowed while Peter was cursing and swearing that he does not know Jesus (Mt 26:74, Mk 14:71).

A rooster crows again. Mt 26:34 mentions it, when interpreted as "before the rooster crows three times, thou shalt deny me."

The occasions in which Peter denied the Lord are identified by comparing the accounts in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. No gospel account mentions all occasions, but only two or three. This may be in order to avoid an excessive emphasis of the denials of Peter. Considering the gospel accounts individually, an indication can be found in each case that the account does not mention all denials of Peter. The indications that can be found in each gospel account are described below.

In the account of John, the Lord mentioned in Jn 13:38 that a rooster would not be heard until Peter denied him three times. In this account, just as in all other gospel accounts, the Lord used the verb απαρνεομαι when predicting the denials of Peter. This verb means "to deny utterly", and so the Lord predicted in Jn 13:38 three utter denials. The simplest way to explain how a denial could be an utter denial is by assuming that it consisted of more than one instance in which Peter said that he did not know the Jesus. Therefore, it would seem best to interpret Jn 18:25-26 as involving only one denial that was manifested in two instances in which Peter said that he did not know Jesus. Thus, while the account mentions three instances in which Peter said that he did not know Jesus, only two occasions are involved. By mentioning only two occasions, this gospel account indicates that it does not describe all predicted denials.

In Luke, the Lord mentioned in Lk 22:34 that a rooster would not be heard until Peter utterly denied him three times. A prediction that Peter would deny utterly the Lord three times is also mentioned in Lk 22:62, when Peter remembered the words of the Lord. In the original language, the predictions of :Lk 22:34 and Lk 22:62 are not stated the same way, which indicates that they are two different predictions. (Lk 22:34 is about the first three occasions in which Peter denied the Lord, while Lk 22:62 could be associated with the remaining three occasions.) Since Lk 22:62 does not state the prediction of Lk 22:34, the account in Luke has an indication that it does not describe how Lk 22:34 was fulfilled. In other words, the account in Luke indicates in this way that it does not describe the three occasions in which Peter denied the Lord before the first rooster crowing. Indeed, if all four gospel accounts are considered, it can be seen that the first two occasions mentioned in Luke were before the first rooster crowing, while the third one was immediately before the second rooster crowing.

In Mark, the prediction of the Lord of Mk 14:30 uses the phrase πριν η, indicating a short amount of time between the predicted denials of Peter and the second rooster crowing; see the article on πριν η for more details. Since Mk 14:30 indicates a group of three denials between the first rooster crowing and the second rooster crowing, it is clear that the account of Mark does not imply that it describes the fulfillment of Mk 14:30. Indeed, the account mentions one denial before the first rooster crowing, and two denials before the second rooster crowing.

In Matthew, the prediction of the Lord of Mt 26:34 appears in the same form in Mt 26:75 as πριν αλεκτορα φωνησαι τρις απαρνηση με. This can be translated in two ways, either as "before the rooster crows, thou shalt deny me three times", or as "before the rooster crows three times, thou shalt deny me". If only one of the two possible meanings were meant, the words could have been easily reordered so as to eliminate the other possibility, such as in Lk 22:61. Therefore, we can conclude that both meanings were meant. The meaning "before the rooster crows, thou shalt deny me three times" indicated that Peter would deny the Lord three times before the first rooster crowing. The meaning "before the rooster crows three times, thou shalt deny me" indicated that not all denials of Peter would precede the second rooster crowing, that Peter would have one denial between the second and the third rooster crowing. (This could be seen in Lk 22:60, where we read that the rooster crowed while Peter was still speaking, which shows that he was not done denying the Lord at the second rooster crowing.) At this point it is clear that the account of Matthew does not imply that it describes the entire fulfillment of Mt 26:24. It only mentions three occasions in which Peter denied the Lord, while implying more than three occasions.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter stands by the fire (Jn 18:18)

Those who were standing by the fire with Peter are described with the words δουλος and υπερητης in Jn 18:18. The word δουλος, typically translated "servant", has been used for slaves. The word υπερητης could be translated "subordinate, attendant, helper, assistant" and refers often to servants. In the context of Jn 18:18, this word refers to people who were serving the high priest or other members of the Sanhedrin in some capacity. They were not slaves, for the word δουλος is used for slaves. In various translations, in the context of arrests (Mt 26:58, Mk 14:54, 65, Jn 7:32, 45, 18:3, 12, 18, 22, 19:6, Ac 5:22, 26), these attendants have been denoted with the words "officers" or "guards". Jn 18:18 indicates that after Peter entered the courtyard of the high priest, he was standing by the fire with the slaves and the attendants. Later, when they sat down, Peter sat down with them (Lk 22:55). As can be seen from Mk 14:54 and Mt 26:58, he sat with the attendants.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

The high priest questions Jesus (Jn 18:19-23)

It is apparent that Caiaphas, the high priest, desired to question Jesus before bringing him to the Sanhedrin. So he had Jesus brought first to Annas, and questioned him there. The fact that Annas sent Jesus to Caiaphas (Jn 18:24) is interpreted here in the sense that Jesus was sent to the place where Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin were going to judge him. Jn 18:24 also implies that Caiaphas departed from Annas before Jesus was sent to him. Caiaphas was the high priest that year (Jn 11:49), so he was the one who questioned Jesus in Jn 18:19-23.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Annas sends Jesus to Caiaphas (Jn 18:24)

See the note above on Jn 18:19-23.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter sits down with the attendants by the fire (Mt 26:58b, Mk 14:54b, Lk 22:55)

See the note above on Jn 18:18.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus appears before the Sanhedrin (Mt 26:59-66, Mk 14:55-64)

The formal trial of Jesus took place in the morning (Lk 22:66-71). However, the Sanhedrin tried Jesus also during the night (Mt 26:59-66, Mk 14:55-64), in order to find a way to condemn him, so as to make the formal trial in the morning very short. They were seeking to have Jesus executed as soon as possible.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is beaten and mocked (Mt 26:67-68, Mk 14:65)

See the note below on Lk 22:63-65.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus again (Mt 26:69-70, Mk 14:66-68, Lk 22:56-57)

The denials of Peter are interpreted here as referring to occasions in which Peter denied Jesus, where each occasion involved at least one instance in which Peter said that he did not know him. In this interpretation, when the servant girl addressed Peter and saw that he denies (Mt 26:69-70), she insisted (Mk 14:67), and seeing that Peter keeps denying it (Mk 14:68), she addressed those standing by (Lk 22:56). See the note above on Jn 18:17.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus again. A rooster crows. (Lk 22:58, Jn 18:25-27)

Considering the occasions in which Peter denied Jesus, the first denial mentioned in Luke appears in Lk 22:56-57. This corresponds to the second occasion in which Peter denied Jesus (Mt 26:69-70, Mk 14:66-68). Thus, Lk 22:58 describes a subsequent denial. As mentioned in Lk 22:59, there was a period of about one hour between the denial of Lk 22:58 and the denial of Lk 22:59-60. Since the denials between the first and the second rooster crowing happened shortly before the second rooster crowing (see "after a little while" in Mt 26:73 and Mk 14:70; see the article on πριν η), it follows that Lk 22:58 corresponds to the third denial before the first rooster crowing. Considering now Jn 18:25, it happened when Peter was standing and warming himself. Taking in account Jn 18:18, he was by the fire. Since he was standing, Jn 18:25 does not correspond to the second denial of Peter, for at that time he sat down (Mt 26:69, Lk 22:56). Since Peter was by the fire, he was not by the gate (Mt 26:71, Mk 14:68). Therefore, Jn 18:25 would not fit well the denials that followed the first rooster crowing. Then, since Jn 18:27 mentions a rooster crowing, it follows that Jn 18:25-27 refers to the third denial of Peter before the first rooster crowing.

In Jn 18:25, those who spoke to Peter did not speak at the same time, but one person spoke for all of them. This person can be identified with the man who spoke to Peter in Lk 22:58. Comparing Lk 22:58 and Jn 18:25-27 in the original language, what Peter was told in Lk 22:58 is almost word-for-word identical with what he was told in Jn 18:25. The most significant difference is that the negation particle μη "not" appears in Jn 18:25, but not in Lk 22:58. In Jn 18:25, this particle indicates that those speaking to Peter were inclined to believe that Peter was not a disciple. The absence of this particle in Lk 22:58 may indicate that the man who spoke was more confident than the others that Peter was a disciple, or that he was just probing to see what Peter would say. See also the note above on Jn 18:17.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus again (Mk 14:69-70a)

The location mentioned at the end of Mk 14:68 has been assumed. See also the note below on Mt 26:71-72.

Location: The gateway of the palace.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus again (Mt 26:71-72)

The woman who spoke in Mt 26:69, Mk 14:66-67, and Lk 22:56, is the same one who spoke in Mk 14:69-70a. However, a different woman spoke in Mt 26:71, as indicated by the word αλλη "another woman". Thus, Mt 26:71-72 and Mk 14:69-70a correspond to different occasions. It is interesting to note that the denial of Mt 26:72 included an oath. Since Mk 14:70a does not mention an oath, it could be concluded that Mt 26:71-72 took place after Mk 14:69-70a. So after the incident of Mk 14:69-70a, realizing that more and more people become suspicious, Peter felt that he had to take an oath. Now Mk 16:68 mentions that Peter went to the gateway. However, at the time of Mt 26:71 Peter was by the gate. A possible interpretation would be that in response to the incident of Mk 14:69-70a, Peter moved from the gateway to the gate. See also the note above on Jn 18:17.

Location: Near the gate of the palace.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Peter denies Jesus again. A rooster crows. (Mt 26:73-75, Mk 14:70b-72, Lk 22:59-62)

Since Mt 26:73-75 and Mk 14:70b-72 are very similar, it seems clear that they refer to the same occasion. Moreover, Lk 22:59-62 is related to these passages by the rooster crowing mentioned in Lk 22:60 and by the fact that in both Lk 22:59 and Mk 14:70 people took note that Peter was a Galilean. In fact, Lk 22:59-60 fits well Mk 14:70b-71 and appears to have taken place right before it. As indicated also in the note above on Mt 26:69-70, an occasion in which Peter denied Jesus may involve more than one instance in which Peter denied him. Here also there are several instances. When a man said that Peter had been with Jesus (Lk 22:59), Peter denied (Lk 22:60). Then those nearby confronted Peter (Mt 26:73, Mk 14:70), noting that he is a Galilean (Mk 14:70) and speaks like a disciple (Mt 26:73). Peter continued to deny (Mt 26:74, Mk 14:71), and the rooster crowed while he was still speaking (Lk 22:60). The fact that no oath is mentioned in Lk 22:60 could be taken as an indication that there was no time for it; the men standing by replied immediately to Peter. He did swear afterwards (Mt 26:74, Mk 14:71). See also the note above on Jn 18:17.

Location: Near the gate of the palace.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is beaten and mocked (Lk 22:63-65)

Earlier, when Jesus was condemned, he was beaten and mocked by some of the Sanhedrin members (Mt 26:67-68, Mk 14:65). The attendants were also beating him (Mk 14:65). The attendants could have been the men guarding Jesus and possibly others. At the time of Lk 22:63-65, Jesus was beaten and mocked by the men who were holding him. They probably considered amusing the way Jesus was mocked by the Sanhedrin, for they were imitating them (compare Mt 26:68 and Lk 22:64).

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index

The leaders take counsel (Mk 15:1a)

The phrase επι το πρωι "towards early morning" was understood here to denote a period of time preceding dawn. The meeting must have been about the formal trial of Jesus, which was to take place shortly after this, very early in the morning.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: The night of Thursday to Friday.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is tried before the Sanhedrin (Lk 22:66-71)

The trial was very short, as could be inferred from Lk 22:66-71. The time of the trial is mentioned in Lk 22:66.

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: Friday, April 3, AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

The leaders take counsel (Mt 27:1)

The discussion must have been about the charges that they should bring against Jesus, so that Pilate might execute him. The time of this event is described with the words προιας δε γενομενης "and after early morning came".

Location: The palace of the high priest.

Time: Friday, April 3, AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is taken to Pilate (Mt 27:2, Mk 15:1b, Lk 23:1, Jn 18:28)

The word προια "early morning" is used to describe the time when the leaders brought Jesus to Pilate (Jn 18:28).

Time: Friday, April 3, AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Judas' remorse (Mt 27:3-10, Ac 1:18-19)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 27:3 indicates that Mt 27:3-4 happened soon after Jesus was brought to Pilate, apparently while the leaders were waiting for Pilate. Mt 27:5, however, must have happened later that day, likely after Jesus died on the cross. Note that the word ναος "temple" of Mt 27:5 refers to the sanctuary, that is, the sacred edifice in which were the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place. Thus, Mt 27:5 indicates that Judas threw the money inside the sanctuary. This was a sacrilege, so the fact that Judas could do it indicates that by that time the presence of the Lord had left the temple. Jesus mentioned that the presence of the Lord would leave the temple in Mt 23:28 and Lk 13:35. This must have happened by the time the inner curtain was torn in two (Mt 27:51). At that time there was supernatural darkness (Mt 27:45) and also a great earthquake that split the rocks (Mt 27:51). So it would appear that Judas took advantage of the confusion created by these circumstances in order to get to the sanctuary and throw the money there. When the temple guards realized what had happened, they must have pursued Judas. However, he chose to hang himself.

When the chief priests got the money that Judas threw into the sanctuary, they decided to purchase the potter's field as a burial place. By this time they must have been aware of the death of Judas, and so they wanted to ensure that he would be buried, so that no dead body would remain exposed on the following day, which was a sacred day. (Jn 19:31). So they must have ensured that Judas was buried before sunset. Since the potter's field was purchased with the money of Judas, in this sense, he acquired that field (Ac 1:18). After the field was acquired, the dead body of Judas fell headlong (Ac 1:18). This probably happened when he was taken down in order to be buried. He was probably buried in the potter's field. Indeed, the field was purchased by the chief priests as a burial place of foreigners, where in the terminology of the law a "foreigner" denoted a person who broke the temple regulations, regardless whether he was a Jew or a Gentile; see the note on Mt 27:6 in the sequence of the Greek text.

Index  Sequence

Jesus before Pilate (Mt 27:11-14, Mk 15:2-5, Lk 23:2-7, Jn 18:29-32)

As indicated in the note above on Mt 27:3-10 and Ac 1:18-19, this happened after Mt 27:3-4, though not after Mt 27:5-10, which took place later that day. In this occasion, Pilate went outside of the Praetorium (Jn 18:28) to examine Jesus before the Jewish leaders (Lk 23:14).

Location: Outside of the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Jesus before Herod (Lk 23:8-12)

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Pilate questions Jesus (Jn 18:33-38a)

Note that the word παλιν "again" in Jn 18:33 is an indication that Jn 18:33 did not happen immediately after Jn 18:32. Between Jn 18:32 and Jn 18:33, Pilate went into the Praetorium, and later returned again outside. Apparently, he entered into the Praetorium after he sent Jesus to Herod, and then returned outside when the leaders came back with Jesus from Herod. In this passage, Pilate examined Jesus privately, since he did it inside the Praetorium (Jn 18:33) and the Jewish leaders were unwilling to enter the Praetorium (Jn 18:28).

Location: In the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Pilate addresses the leaders and the people (Mt 27:15-23, Mk 15:6-11, Lk 23:13-19, Jn 18:38b-40)

Location: Outside of the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is flogged and mocked (Jn 19:1-3)

The Scripture records two instances in which Jesus was mocked by the Roman soldiers. The first one is in Jn 19:1-3, which took place at a time when Pilate did not intend to execute Jesus. The other instance is in Mt 27:27-30 and Mk 15:16-19, which took place after he was delivered to be crucified. The Scripture records also two instances in which Jesus was flogged. The first one is in Jn 19:1, which uses the verb μαστιγοω "to flog", just as in the verses in which the Lord predicted his suffering (Mt 20:19, Mk 10:34, Lk 18:33). The other instance is in Mt 27:26 and Mk 15:15, which use the verb φραγελλοω "to scourge". This verb corresponds to the noun φραγελλιον "whip", which appears in the phrase φραγελλιον εκ σχοινιων "whip of cords" in Jn 2:15, describing the whip that Jesus used to drive out the sheep and the oxen from the temple. When Pilate flogged Jesus in Jn 19:1, he acted in accordance to what he had said earlier in Lk 23:16. At that time, he did not intend to execute Jesus. However, the flogging of Mt 27:26 and Mk 15:15 took place when Jesus was sentenced to death, and probably indicated that he would be executed. This flogging took place between Jn 19:15 and Jn 19:16. Since Jn 19:16 begins with τοτε "then", it could be inferred that this flogging was short. Nonetheless, it was probably very severe, since it was applied to a person sentenced to death.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Pilate addresses the people again (Mk 15:12-13, Lk 23:20-21, Jn 19:4-8)

Location: Outside of the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Pilate questions Jesus again (Jn 19:9-11)

Location: In the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Pilate addresses the people one more time (Mt 27:24-25, Mk 15:14, Lk 23:22-24, Jn 19:12-15)

Jn 19:14 mentions the sixth hour. Roughly speaking, this would correspond to 6 am. Note that minutes are not recorded in the Bible, so the sixth hour could denote any time between 6am and 7am. Understanding the word ωσει in ωρα δε ωσει εκτη "about the sixth hour" to denote the end of the hour, the time must have been close to 7am. See also the comment about the time of the crucifixion of the Lord in the note below on Mt 27:33-38, Mk 15:22-28, Lk 23:33-38, Jn 19:19, 23-24.

Location: Outside of the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is delivered to be crucified (Mt 27:26, Mk 15:15, Lk 23:25, Jn 19:16)

The word τοτε "then" in Jn 19:16 indicates that this happened shortly after Jn 19:15. The same word in Mt 27:26 indicates that Barabbas was released shortly after Mt 27:25. Since Jesus was flogged before he was delivered to be crucified, it follows that this flogging was short; see the note above on Jn 19:1-3.

Location: Outside of the Praetorium.

Time: Friday, very early in the morning.

Index  Sequence

The soldiers mock Jesus (Mt 27:27-31, Mk 15:16-20)

The word τοτε "then" in Mt 27:27 indicates that these passages took place immediately after Jesus was delivered to be crucified. The soldiers had mocked Jesus also earlier (Jn 19:1-3). Since Jn 19:14 mentions a time in the early morning, it is clear that the soldiers did not have much time to mock Jesus in Jn 19:1-3. At the time of Mt 27:27-31 and Mk 15:16-20, however, it seems that they were able to mock him at length. As for the time of Jn 19:14, see the note above on Mt 27:24-25, Mk 15:14, Lk 23:22-24 and Jn 19:12-15.

Location: In the Praetorium.

Time: Friday morning.

Index  Sequence

On the way to Golgotha (Mt 27:32, Mk 15:21, Lk 23:26-32, Jn 19:17)

Time: Friday morning.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is crucified (Mt 27:33-38, Mk 15:22-28, Lk 23:33-38, Jn 19:19, 23-24)

After Jesus was brought to Golgotha, he was offered vinegar mixed with gall (Mt 27:33) and wine mixed with myrrh (Mk 15:23). He refused both. Then, he was crucified and his garments were divided among the soldiers (Mt 27:35, Mk 15:24, Lk 23:33-34, Jn 19:18, 23-24). Then, Jesus was mocked (Lk 23:35-37). As could be inferred from the word τοτε "then" of Mt 27:38, the two robbers were crucified shortly after the written accusation was placed on the cross of Jesus (Mt 27:37, Mk 15:26, Lk 23:38, Jn 19:19). As could be seen from Mt 27:39-44 and Mk 15:29-32, those who were present continued to mock Jesus after the written accusation was placed on his cross.

Comparing Mt 27:37, Mk 15:26, Lk 23:38, and Jn 19:19, it could be concluded that each account abbreviates the text of the inscription. Since the four abbreviations do not exclude the same details, by combining the words included in each abbreviation we obtain, ουτος εστιν ιησους ο ναζωραιος ο βασιλευς των ιουδαιων "This is Jesus the Nazarene, the king of the Jews". Though Jesus is truly the king of the Jews, the apparent intent of the inscription was to mock the Jews. Now it seems that the leaders did not object right away to the text of the inscription. Later, however, seeing how many people read the inscription, the chief priests asked Pilate to change the text of the inscription by replacing "the king of the Jews" with "He said I am the king of the Jews" (Jn 19:20-21).

The Lord was crucified about 9 am (Mk 15:25). This was about 2 hours after he was delivered to be crucified; see the note above on Jn 19:12-15. Note that the third hour in Mk 15:25 is understood to refer to the third hour after sunrise, while the sixth hour in Jn 19:14 as the sixth hour after midnight (that is, six hours before noon). Thus, a comparison of Mk 15:25 with Jn 19:14 provides evidence that in Matthew, Mark, and Luke, time is measured with respect to sunrise, while in John, time is measured with respect to midnight or noon.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday 9 am.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is mocked (Mt 27:39-44, Mk 15:29-32)

The accounts of the crucifixion mention that Jesus was mocked immediately after he was crucified, before the inscription of the charge was placed on the cross (Lk 23:33-37), and also afterwards, as indicated by Mt 27:39-44 and Mk 15:29-32.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday morning.

Index  Sequence

The chief priests ask Pilate to change the inscription of the charge against Jesus (Jn 19:20-22)

Considering the accounts of the crucifixion of the Lord, there seems to be no indication that Pilate was present. Thus, when the inscription of the charge against Jesus was placed on the cross, the chief priests could not object immediately to Pilate, since he was not there. At the time of the crucifixion, we find the chief priests among those who were mocking Jesus (Mt 27:41-43, Mk 15:31-32). In view of the word ουν "therefore, then" at the beginning of Jn 19:21, it could be concluded that the chief priests spoke to Pilate about the inscription after they realized that many were reading it (Jn 19:20-21).

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday morning.

Index  Sequence

One of the crucified robbers shows signs of repentance (Lk 23:39-43)

Interpreting the phrase ην δε ωσει ωρα εκτη "It was now the sixth hour" in Lk 23:44 as indicating the time of Lk 23:39-43, it could be concluded that this passage took place about the sixth hour (that is, about noon). Note that Mt 27:44 and Mk 15:32 appear to have taken place about the third hour (Mk 15:25). At that time, the robbers were mocking Jesus. Sometime during the three-hour interval spanning from Mt 27:44 and Mk 15:32 to Lk 23:39, one of the robbers repented.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday at noon.

Index  Sequence

Darkness from noon to 3pm (Mt 27:45, Mk 15:33, Lk 23:44-45)

Lk 23:45 mentions that the sun was darkened, and the curtain of the temple was torn in the middle. The statement in Lk 23:45 is interpreted here as referring to a partial tear of the curtain that happened sometime between the sixth and the ninth hour. Later, after the death of Jesus, the curtain was torn completely from top to bottom (Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38). The original-language text supports the distinction between Lk 23:45 and Mt 27:51, Mk 15:38, for we read εσχισθη το καταπετασμα του ναου μεσον "the curtain of the temple was torn in the middle" in Lk 23:45, but το καταπετασμα του ναου εσχισθη εις δυο απο ανωθεν εως κατω "the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom" in Mt 27:51 and Mk 15:38.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday afternoon.

Index  Sequence

Jesus speaks to his mother (Jn 19:25-27)

The phrase μετα τουτο "after this" of Jn 19:28 is understood here to indicate that Jn 19:25-27 took place shortly before Jn 19:28, that is, at the time of the death of Jesus. Jesus died at the ninth hour (Mt 27:40, Mk 15:34), which would correspond to 3pm.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday 3pm.

Index  Sequence

The death of Jesus (Mt 27:46-56, Mk 15:34-41, Lk 23:46-49, Jn 19:28-30)

Jesus cried, "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" (Mt 27:46, Mk 15:34). Then, knowing that all things had been accomplished, he said, "I thirst" (Jn 19:28). One who was present rushed to give Jesus a drink (Mt 27:48). What this man did was supported by others who were present, for the plural number is used in Jn 19:29. While the man was giving vinegar to Jesus, he asked for permission from the soldiers (Mk 15:36). The others with him also asked for permission from the centurion (Mt 27:49). With their excuse, "Let us see if Elijah comes to save him" (Mt 27:49, Mk 15:36), they were probably suggesting to the Romans that God could have been in favor of giving Jesus the drink. After he received the drink, Jesus said "it is finished" (Jn 19:30). After he cried with a loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit" (Lk 23:46). Then he bowed his head and gave up his spirit (Jn 19:30).

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday 3pm.

Index  Sequence

A soldier pierces the body of Jesus (Jn 19:31-37)

Jn 19:31-37 must have happened sometime before sunset, in order to allow sufficient time for the bodies to be buried before the Sabbath. The Sabbath began at sunset.

Location: Golgotha.

Time: Friday before sunset.

Index

Joseph of Arimathea asks Pilate for the body of Jesus (Mt 27:57-58, Mk 15:42-45, Lk 23:50-52, Jn 19:38a)

In view of Mt 27:58 and Lk 23:52, Joseph went to the headquarters of the governor.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Friday before sunset.

Index  Sequence

The burial of Jesus (Mt 27:59-61, Mk 15:46-47, Lk 23:53-55, Jn 19:38b-42)

As indicated in Lk 23:54, the Sabbath was beginning when Jesus was buried. It was not yet the Sabbath, for the women had some time to prepare the spices before taking their Sabbath rest (Lk 23:56).

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Friday at sunset.

Index  Sequence

The women prepare spices (Lk 23:56a)

Time: Friday at sunset.

Index

The women rest on the Sabbath (Lk 23:56b)

Time: Saturday, April 4, AD 33.

Index

The chief priests and the Pharisees ask Pilate for a guard and secure the tomb (Mt 27:62-66)

The text states that συνηχθησαν οι αρχιερεις και οι φαρισαιοι προς πιλατον "the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered to Pilate". They must have went close to the headquarters of the governor, without entering in (Jn 18:28-29).

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Saturday, April 4, AD 33.

Index

The women purchase spices (Mk 16:1)

Time: Saturday after sunset.

Index

Mary Magdalene and the other Mary go to look to the tomb (Mt 28:1-8, Lk 24:1, Jn 20:1)

The Gospel accounts indicate that the women went several times to the tomb. As will be shown here, Mt 28:1-8 and Jn 20:1 happened first, then Mk 16:2-8, and later Lk 24:2-8.

Time

The Tomb

The Angels

What the Angels Said

Examining the Tomb

Who Went to the Tomb

How the Women Responded

Additional Remarks on Mt 28:1-8 and Jn 20:1

See also below the remarks on Mk 16:2-8 and the remarks on Lk 24:1-8.

SUMMARY

The first time (Mt 28:1-8, Jn 20:1, Lk 24:1)

The second time (Mk 16:2-8)

The third time (Lk 24:2-8)

The first occasion took place at dawn (Mt 28:1), while it was still dark (Jn 20:1, Lk 24:1).

The second occasion took place very early in the morning, after the sun had risen (Mk 16:2).

The third occasion took place later, most likely early in the morning.

The first time, an angel rolled the stone from the entrance of the tomb and spoke to the women (Mt 28:2-5).

The second time, they saw that the stone had been rolled back (Mk 16:4).

The third time, they found the stone rolled back (Lk 24:2).

The first time, the angel told the women, "He is not here, for he hath risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay" (Mt 28:6). We do not read here that they entered in to look, but that "they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy" (Mt 28:8). Apparently, they did not enter the tomb this time.

The second time, they did enter the tomb, but there they saw an angel (Mk 16:5). The angel told them, "He hath risen; he is not here. Behold the place where they laid him" (Mk 16:6). So they saw the angel before getting to see the place where Jesus had been laid. The text does not say that they proceeded further into the tomb, but that "they went out quickly, and fled from the tomb" (Mk 16:8). Apparently, after the angel spoke to them, they left immediately, without drawing near to look to the place where Jesus had been laid.

The third time, they entered into the tomb. When they did not find the body of Jesus, they were perplexed (Lk 24:3-4). Therefore, the women did examine the tomb in this occasion. After they examined the tomb, two angels stood by them.

The first time, the angel told the women, "Fear not ye, for I know that ye seek Jesus, the one who was crucified. He is not here, for he hath risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And going quickly, tell his disciples that he hath risen from the dead; and behold, he goeth before you to Galilee; there shall ye see him. Behold, I have told you" (Mt 28:5-7).

The second time, the angel said, "Be not frightened. Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, the one who was crucified. He hath risen; he is not here. Behold the place where they laid him. But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee. There shall ye see him, as he told you" (Mk 16:6-7).

The third time, two angels appeared to them. This time the words of the angels could be interpreted as a mild rebuke. The angels said, "Why seek ye the living among the dead? He is not here, but hath risen. Remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, saying, 'The Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again'" (Lk 24:5-7).

The first time, "when they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, they ran to tell his disciples" (Mt 28:8). This positive attitude did not last very long. Sometime later Mary Magdalene dismissed what she had seen and heard (Jn 20:2, 11-15). She was probably assuming that what she had experienced in Mt 28:2-7 was just a vision.

The second time, "when they went out quickly, they fled from the tomb; trembling and amazement seized them, and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid" (Mk 16:8).

The third time, "when they returned from the tomb, they announced these things to the eleven and to all the rest" (Lk 24:9).

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index

The women go to the tomb again (Mk 16:2-8)

See the remarks above on Mt 28:1-8.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index

The women go to the tomb one more time (Lk 24:2-8)

See the remarks above on Mt 28:1-8.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33, very early in the morning.

Index

The women announce the eleven and the other disciples (Lk 24:9-11)

The word παλιν "again" in Jn 20:10 indicates that the disciples had been before to the tomb. Thus, Lk 24:12 appears to be the first occasion in which Peter went to the tomb. Indeed, in Lk 24:12 Peter stooped in order to look into the tomb, while in Jn 20:6 he entered inside the tomb. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that Jn 20:2 preceded Lk 24:12. Rather, Peter was announced about the empty tomb before Lk 24:12, and then once again by Mary Magdalene in Jn 20:2. A possible reason Peter was announced twice could be that the women did not go together to announce the disciples. Since Jesus had many disciples, they were not all in one place, but spread out in Jerusalem and its neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that the women did not go together to announce the disciples, but they spread out and went separately to the places where the disciples were located. In view of Jn 20:2-3 and Jn 20:10, it seems likely that Peter and the other disciple were in the same place.

Additional support to the conclusion that Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:3-10 describe different occasions is provided by the similarity of the words used in Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:5, 10. Indeed, if Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:3-10 were interpreted as referring to the same occasion, then Lk 24:12 would correspond to Jn 20:6-7. However, this would imply that παρακυψας "having stooped" refers to something done from the outside in Jn 20:5, but from the inside in Lk 24:12. In contrast, the interpretation that Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:3-10 describe two different occasions does not have any difficulty. The similarity of και παρακυψας βλεπει τα οθονια κειμενα μονα "and having stooped he saw the linen cloths lying by themselves" in Lk 24:12 and και παρακυψας βλεπει κειμενα τα οθονια "and having stooped he saw the linen cloths lying" in Jn 20:5, emphasizes that Peter in Lk 24:12 saw the same thing as the other disciple in Jn 20:5, which implies that Peter did not enter the tomb at the time of Lk 24:12. While the linen cloths could be seen from outside of the tomb (Jn 20:5), the face cloth, apparently, could only be seen from the inside (Jn 20:7).

Location: Jerusalem and its vicinity.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

Peter runs to the tomb (Lk 24:12)

Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:3-10 describe two different occasions, as shown in the remarks above on Lk 24:9-11.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

Mary Magdalene announces Peter and the other disciple (Jn 20:2)

See the remarks above on Lk 24:9-11.

Location: Jerusalem and its vicinity.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

Peter and the other disciple run to the tomb (Jn 20:3-10)

While the Gospel of Luke mentions only Peter in Lk 24:12, it does state in Lk 24:24 that more than one man went to the tomb. This could be a reference to the occasion of Jn 20:3-10. Based on the remarks above on Lk 24:9-11, it can be seen that Lk 24:12 and Jn 20:3-10 do not describe the same occasion, but two different occasions in which Peter went to the tomb.

Location: Near Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to Mary Magdalene (Mk 16:9, Jn 20:11-17)

As stated in Mk 16:9, Mary Magdalene was the first to see the Lord. This shows that Mk 16:9 and Jn 20:11-17 precede Mt 28:9-10. The detail about the seven demons is mentioned in both Mk 16:9 and Lk 8:2.

Location: Near the tomb.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

Mary Magdalene tells the disciples that she has seen the Lord (Mk 16:10-11, Jn 20:18)

The phrase τοις μετ αυτου γενομενοις "to those who had been with him" in Mk 16:10 refers to disciples who had been close to the Lord, such as the eleven. Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joses were also sent to the other disciples (Mt 28:9-10). Due to the feast, the disciples of the Lord were in Jerusalem and its vicinity. Thus, the women did not have to go very far in order to announce them.

Location: Jerusalem and its vicinity.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to Mary Magdalene and the other Mary (Mt 28:9-10)

In the context of Mt 28, this passage refers to Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joses (Mt 27:57, 61, 28:1). The Lord appeared to them while they were going to announce the disciples. Understanding this passage to follow after Mk 16:10-11, Mary Magdalene had already announced the disciples that had been very close to the Lord. These were about to see the risen Lord in Jerusalem. In Mt 28:9-10, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were on their way to announce the other disciples. These were to see the Lord in Galilee. While the Lord did not say anything about Galilee in Jn 20:17, he spoke about it in Mt 28:10, for the women were going to disciples to whom he intended to appear in Galilee.

Location: Jerusalem and its vicinity.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The chief priests are announced also (Mt 28:11-15)

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to two disciples that were going to a field (Mk 16:12-13)

This does not seem to be the same occasion as Lk 24:13-35. Evidence that Mk 16:12-13 and Lk 24:13-35 correspond to different occasions is as follows. In Lk 24:13-35 the disciples were going to Emmaus, to the place where they were staying, and the time was late (Lk 24:29). However, it would seem unlikely that in Mk 16:12-13 the disciples were going to a field at a late hour. It would be more natural to assume that Mk 16:12-13 took place earlier that day. Moreover, the reaction of the other disciples in Mk 16:13 indicates that either Peter had not seen yet the Lord, or that they were not yet aware about it. However, the disciples were aware about it in Lk 24:34.

Location: Vicinity of Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to two disciples on the road to Emmaus (Lk 24:13-32)

Location: Vicinity of Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The two disciples report the appearance to the eleven (Lk 24:33-35)

Note that the location is indicated explicitly in Lk 24:33.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to his disciples (Lk 24:36-45, Jn 20:19-25)

When examining Lk 24:36-53, it becomes clear that not all of it took place in one day. Lk 24:36 took place on the resurrection day, but Lk 24:50-52 took place on the day the Lord ascended to heaven. Note that Ac 1:1-2 makes it clear that the Gospel of Luke ends with the Ascension of the Lord, while Ac 1:3 indicates that the Ascension was 40 days after the resurrection. Ac 1:3 also states that during this 40 days period, when the Lord would come to them, he would speak about the things pertaining to the kingdom of God. One matter that the Lord taught was that all things written in the Scripture had to be fulfilled (Lk 24:44). Understanding Lk 24:46-49 as a conclusion to what the Lord taught, there must be some time between Lk 24:44 and Lk 24:46-49, since the Lord needed time to teach the disciples these things. Note that Lk 24:45 is related to Jn 20:22, since the disciples needed the Holy Spirit in order to understand the Scripture. Thus, it is assumed here that there is some time between Lk 24:45 and Lk 24:46. If Lk 24:46-49 took place at the time of Lk 24:50-53, we can conclude that there are 40 days from Lk 24:45 to Lk 24:46.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Sunday, April 5 AD 33.

Index  Sequence

The Lord appears to his disciples (Mk 16:14, Jn 20:26-31)

Based on Jn 21:14, it can be inferred that this event is the second occasion in which Jesus appeared to his disciples. As mentioned in Jn 20:26, this event took place eight days after Jn 20:19-25. According to our manner of counting days, this would mean one week later. The disciples must have been in Jerusalem or its vicinity, given that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was one week long.

Mk 16:14 can be associated with Jn 20:26-31 by reasoning as follows. First, since the Lord rebuked the unbelief of the eleven in Mk 16:14, it follows that Mk 16:14 must refer to one of the first appearances of the risen Lord. Second, understanding "the eleven" to denote not just a significant number of the eleven disciples but rather all eleven disciples, the occasion of Lk 24:36-45 and Jn 20:19-25 does not fit Mk 16:14 because Thomas was absent (Jn 20:24). (In this interpretation, Thomas left sometime before Lk 24:36, since the eleven are mentioned in Lk 24:33.) Thus, it would seem natural to associate Mk 16:14 with the second occasion in which Jesus appeared to the disciples. It may be that after the Lord spoke to Thomas, he rebuked all eleven disciples for their unbelief and hardness of heart. After all, not only Thomas, but also the other apostles had to see the wounds of the Lord in order to believe (Lk 24:38-40). Indeed, it could be noted that just as the Lord urged Thomas in Jn 20:27 to touch him and see that he was real, so also he urged the disciples in Lk 24:39 with the words ψηλαφησατε με "touch me". Significantly, the apostle John wrote ο εθεασαμεθα και αι χειρες ημων εψηλαφησαν "that which we have looked upon and our hands have touched" in 1Jn 1:1, using the verb ψηλαφαω "to touch" that appears in Lk 24:39.

Location: Jerusalem or its vicinity.

Time: Sunday, April 12, AD 33.

Index

The Lord appears to his disciples (Jn 21:1-25)

The location is mentioned in Jn 21:1. The Sea of Tiberias is understood here to denote the Sea of Galilee near Tiberias.

Location: Near the Sea of Galilee and Tiberias.

Index

The Lord appears to his disciples (Mt 28:16-20, 1Co 15:6)

In the context of the Gospel of Matthew, this occasion matches the promise of Mt 28:7, 10 that the disciples would see the Lord in Galilee. In earlier occasions, the Lord showed himself to the eleven and to those with them. However, most of the disciples of the Lord were not present in these earlier occasions. Understanding Mt 28:16-20 as fulfilling the promise of Mt 28:7, 10, as an occasion in which not only the apostles but also the other disciples saw the Lord, it could be concluded that 1Co 15:6 refers to this event. As indicated in Mt 28:16, this event took place on a mountain, not in a house. Note that the location is in agreement with the large number of disciples mentioned in 1Co 15:6, which states that over 500 disciples saw Jesus at that time.

Location: On a mountain in Galilee.

Index

Jesus instructs his disciples (Lk 24:46-49, Ac 1:4-5)

It may be that this took place in the upper room mentioned in Ac 1:13, since Ac 1:13 indicates that the apostles were staying there. See also the note above on Lk 24:36-45.

Location: Jerusalem.

Time: Thursday, May 14, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus leads the disciples outside of Jerusalem (Lk 24:50a)

The Lord led the disciples to the place from which he was taken to heaven. As indicated in Ac 1:12, the Ascension took place on the Mount of Olives.

Time: Thursday, May 14, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus instructs his disciples (Ac 1:6-8)

This passage is understood here as presenting final words of the Lord before his ascension. The location follows from Ac 1:12.

Location: Mount of Olives.

Time: Thursday, May 14, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus blesses the disciples (Mk 16:15-18, Lk 24:50b)

The phrase μετα το λαλησαι αυτοις "after he spoke to them" in Mk 16:19 was taken as an indication that Mk 16:19 followed soon after Mk 16:15-18. So it was assumed that Mk 16:15-18 belongs to the blessing that the Lord spoke before his ascension.

Location: Mount of Olives.

Time: Thursday, May 14, AD 33.

Index  Sequence

Jesus is taken to heaven (Mk 16:19-20, Lk 24:51-53, Ac 1:9-11)

The Lord spoke about his ascension in Jn 6:62.

Location: Mount of Olives.

Time: Thursday, May 14, AD 33.

Index  Sequence


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